When did beavers first start building dams?

 

When did squirrels first start storing food?

 

When did ants first start systematically transporting goods along specific routes?

 

When did whales first start communicating?

 

 

 

These questions seem silly, that is – for non-humans.

Archaeology is not employed in answering these questions.

That’s just what these creatures have always done.

 

 

 

When did humans first start building houses?

 

When did humans first start storing food?

 

When did humans first start moving goods from one house to another, on routes?

 

When did humans start talking to one another?

 

 

 

These two sets of questions – for human and for non-humans, are treated differently by professionals.

For us humans, we are considered a blank slate – nothing innate.

For animals, we afford them innate qualities which we have no problem extending back to before the archaeological record.

 

 

 

Beavers build dams.  That’s what they do.  That’s how they’ve thrived.

Squirrels store nuts.  That’s what they do.  That’s how they’ve thrived.

Ants organize their efforts in transporting goods systematically, among other collective activities.  That’s what they do.  That’s how they’ve thrived.

Whales communicate.  That’s what they do.  Maybe that’s how they’ve thrived.

 

 

 

Might some of these traits also be essentially innate within us?

Might all of these traits be expected to arise, eventually, over thousands of years?

 What if there are some traits which are essentially innate within us, that are part and parcel with being human, but traits even more elaborate than building houses and storing food?  Considered over enough time and with enough variety of ecological situations humans find themselves in, is it not reasonable to assume that we have innate characteristics that develop as sure as a plant sets a flower?  For examples:

 

When did humans first start examining their situation systematically, examining natural phenomena systematically, refining their tools and technologies systematically, and otherwise investigate nature, including themselves, and effectively apply this understanding to gain advantages in the world?

 

When did humans first start planting their stored seed from the previous year?

 

When did humans first start saddling horses or training wolves, or herding cattle or shearing sheep?

 

 

 

The need to build shelter would be obvious.  This realization – that you need a house, this would eventually naturally occur to anybody.  “Oh, it’s raining out, let’s build a hut.”  It wouldn’t take more than a generation to fully develop a cottage industry of cottage makers.

Farming, on the other hand, is not necessarily as obvious as realizing that one could build a house.  Still, over the timescale of many generations, or over centuries, or at least within a millennium of living in a region, somebody at some point must surely realize that plants and animals can be systematically domesticated.

 

 

 

When was the very first time humans started growing crops or building canals or herding animals or building houses or making things like boats or simple wagons, or smoothening the wagon’s path between houses, or making a bridge across the river, or communicating symbolically or through writing?

In other words, when did Ugh-Ugh-Cave-Man turn into something more effective, cunning, efficient, making use of tools, and fashioning his and her environment in some significant way, to give advantages in life, to ensure survival and put food on a collective table, by employing the power of our minds to ensure the welfare of our friends and family?

 

What if this question misses the mark, in that, what if Ugh-Ugh-Cave-Man never existed, in the first place?

What if, to be successful, we must’ve made tools and infrastructure, and we must’ve domesticated animals and plants, in order to develop the way we have?

Maybe our lack of body hair, for example, demonstrates a history of making clothing?  If so, can we really expect to answer the question “when was the first sweater ever made”?  Making clothing when the climate requires it might simply be part and parcel with being human.  Anybody would consider fashioning some fashion when it’s raining out, or at least dream of it – especially where and when climate is really inclement.

 

 

 

 

 

For the beaver, no one would take the position that beavers started making dams only once we documented their existence.  That would be dam silly.

Everybody would assume that beavers have pretty much always been up to the tricky business of designing these intricate waterworks.  That’s just what they do.  Right?

 

Howbout for humans?  Do we not always seek to build shelter?  Even some hunter gatherers build temporary huts where they temporarily stay.  Is this not something to be expected to have always existed, so long as us humans have existed?

 

When the question is asked: when did we start settling down and fashioning villages, with at least rudimentary farming including food storage; then, unlike other creature’s innate abilities, this is not considered an essentially ever-present trait within us.  Our default state, we are told, is the bushman – the hunter-gatherer.

 

To be sure, there are times when we do lose skills and abilities.  There are times when we do revert to more primitive forms, losing things like records or languages, or skills to make various tools and structures and infrastructure – even in recent times.

In the beaver world, maybe certain environmental changes or catastrophes have decimated some populations so hard at times that only babies survive who’ve lost all of the advanced techniques from their beaver ancestors.  All that idiosyncratic house-construction wisdom, forever lost.  These orphaned baby beavers never had the chance to learn from their parents.  Maybe certain cultures of beaver had developed unrecognizable beautifully managed landscapes with peculiar techniques, at times – while being essentially the same species as today – just with a different level of civilization/culture in their time, which is now lost – special dam-building technologies, in long-lost beaver cultures.  Hanging Gardens Of Beaverland.  Ancient Lost High Beaver Technology.

 

 

 

Evidence for us humans – our species – goes back (at least) 300,000 years.

 

The first evidence of farming is found just after the end of the last ice age, roughly 11,500 years ago.

 

David Attenborough proclaims, concerning the Holocene (from 11,700 years ago onward) that it is when:     “We invented farming.”

 

So, before 11,700 years ago: no farming.

 

We were always hunting and gathering before the Holocene, Attenborough implies.  We never planted a single onion, nor did we ever goad a single goat – for 288,300 friggin’ years.

 

 

 

Before the end of the last ice age, before the start of our current period -The Holocene, so before 11,700 years ago, during 288,300 years, even with catastrophes bombarding beaver populations, returning the beaver societies to a more unlearned and primitive condition at times, maybe even for a few generations at times; and even with beavers taking breaks from building dams (living in lakes for generations, for example); is it not unreasonable to assume, without doubt, that many beaver populations, around the world, from 300,000 years ago to 11,700 years ago, must have built dams, at some point, at many points in fact?  Like, absolutely, some beaver populations must have built dams in this vast stretch of time – 288,300 years, right?  That’s what beavers do.  That’s what they must’ve done.

 

 

 

Not a single anatomically modern human soul, for (at least) 288,300 years, noticed that seeds are the start of a new plant, and so they never bothered to store any and sow them the following year?!

 

 

 

Professionals who insist that nobody performed agriculture for 288,300 years of our history, have probably never worked the land, demonstrate a complete lack of imagination of circumstances that may befall humanity – the range of ecological situations that various populations may encounter at different times, show a huge lack of respect for our ancestors, and these professionals obviously know nothing of what human ingenuity, even in isolation, can produce, both in situations of desperation and also – and especially – in periods of warmth and abundance and collective cooperation.

We don’t just underestimate the intelligence of plants and animals, we also clearly grossly underestimate our own abilities, and our own intellect, of our very own species, including underestimating our parental drive to feed and clothe our kids – which would surely have pushed us to farming and herding and providing basic amenities like shelter and clothing.  This really should not be controversial.

 

 

 

Even though some beavers don’t bother building dams, even for generations at times, we should still expect that some populations of beaver built dams at some point in those 288,300 years.

Even though there are some human hunter-gatherers today, and there have probably always been some populations picking around, we should still expect that some populations of human built farms and cities at some point in those 288,300 years.

 

 

 

At the very least, professionals could say: “there is no evidence for civilization before the end of the ice age, but we just don’t know”.  That would be more fair.  Like saying: “we don’t know for sure if beavers built dams before we documented this effort”.  It would still be a silly thing to say, but way more fair than saying beavers never built a single dam before we documented their existence.

 

Howbout this instead:

“We don’t know for a fact that before 11,700 years ago people tended to plants and animals, built infrastructure, organized their efforts collectively, and communicated with each other systematically like with writing; there is no hard evidence for this; but, you can rest assured that they certainly did this at times, because they were us and we are them, and that’s what we do, so that’s what they must’ve done too.” 

This would be a perfectly sensible, a perfectly rational, a perfectly reasonable position to promote, even while based purely on assumptions.

The current “rational” “academic” “scholarly” position belittles our ancestors, making them look like fools, while only revealing our foolishness.  Our characterization of human souls before 11,700 years ago is derogatory, insulting, and reveals more about us than it does about them (in that we reveal our need to be the peak of human existence – we must be the best because we are the most recent, and everything only ever gets better with time, right?).  To depict anybody and everybody before 11,700 years ago as an unkept, toothless, cross-eyed, grunting, hairy moron lumbering along hunch-backed, only ever wearing a loin cloth, arranging a stone bed in a damp and dreary cave, with vermin crawling all over;  reveals a huge lack of imagination of what must’ve been possible for (at least) 288,300 years.

 

A few millennia can present enough of an opportunity for us to go from primitive barbarism to super-computers.  And it would only take a few millennia to wipe clean most traces of our advanced accomplishments.

288,300 years is a friggin’ long time.

Over a quarter-million years.

288 millennia.

We’ve been around a long time.

24 Holocenes  worth of time.

Over 10 thousand generations of humankind, coming and going, waxing and waning.

(at least)

 

The point at which we first “invented farming” is something that we will never be able to establish.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During the Gold Rush, in the Sierra Nevada mountains, near Sonora California, gold miners had dug deep tunnels into Table Mountain.

They found anatomically modern human bones and hundreds of human artefacts, like multiple stone mortars and pestles, ladles, and obsidian spear points:

 

 

“In 1891, George F. Becker told the American Geological Society that in the spring of 1869, Clarence King, director of the Survey of the Fortieth Parallel, and a respected geologist, was conducting research at Tuolomne Table Mountain.  Becker stated:”

 

“At one point, close to the high bluff of basalt capping, a recent wash had swept away all talus and exposed the underlying compact, hard, auriferous gravel beds, which were beyond all question in place.  In examining the exposure for fossils, he [King] observed the fractured end of what appeared to be a cylindrical mass of stone.  The mass he forced out of its place with considerable difficulty on account of the hardness of the gravel in which it was tightly wedged.  It left behind a perfect cast of itself in the matrix and proved to be part of a polished stone implement, no doubt a pestle.”

 

“Mr. King is perfectly sure this implement was in place and that it formed an original part of the gravels in which he found it.  It is difficult to imagine a more satisfactory evidence than this of the occurrence of implements in the auriferous, pre-glacial, sub-basaltic gravels.”

 

“From this description and the modern geological dating of the Table Mountain Strata, it is apparent that this object was over 9 million years old.”

 

 

 

James Carvin, describing a hatchet found at Table Mountain:

 

“This is to certify that I, the undersigned, did about the year 1858, dig out of some mining claims known as the Stanislaus Company, situated in Table Mountain, Tuolumne County, opposite O’Byrn’s Ferry, on the Stanislaus River, a stone hatchet… with a hole through it for a handle.  Its size was four inches across the edge, and length about six inches.  It had evidently been made by human hands.  The above relic was found about sixty to seventy-five feet from the surface in gravel, under the basalt, and about 300 feet from the mouth of the tunnel.  There were also some mortars found, at about the same time and place.”

 

 

 

In 1870, Llewellyn Pierce, describing a 31.5-inch-wide mortar found in the Boston Tunnel Company mine, at Table Mountain:

 

“Thls is to certify that I, the undersigned, have this day given to Mr. C. D. Voy, to be preserved in his collection of ancient stone relics, a certain stone mortar, which has evidently been made by human hands, which was dug up by me, about the year 1862, under Table Mountain, in gravel, at a depth of about 200 feet from the surface, under the basalt, which was over sixty feet deep, and about 1,800 feet in from the mouth of the tunnel. Found in the claim known as the Boston Tunnel Company."

 

 

 

A skull fragment found at Table Mountain, is housed at The Museum of the Natural History Society of Boston:

 

From a shaft in Table Mountain, 180 feet below the surface, in gold drift…  Overlying strata of basaltic compactness and hardness.  Found July, 1857.  Given to Rev. C.F. Winslow by Hon. Paul K. Hubbs, August 1857.

 

 

 

On August 2, 1890, J H. Neale, supervisor and chief engineer of Montezuma Tunnel at Table Mountain, signed the following statement about discoveries made by him: 

 

“In 1877 Mr. J.H. Neale was superintendent of the Montezuma Tunnel Company, and ran the Montezuma Tunnel into the gravel underlying the lava at Table Mountain, Tuolumne County.  …  The mouth is approximately 1200 feet from the present edge of the solid lava cap of the mountain.  At a distance of between 1400 and 1500 feet from the mouth of the tunnel, or of between 200 and 300 feet beyond the edge of the solid lava, Mr. Neale saw several spear heads, of some dark rock and nearly one foot in length.  On exploring further, he himself found a small mortar 3 or 4 inches in diameter and of irregular shape.  This was discovered within a foot or two of the spear-heads. He then found a large well-formed pestle, now the property of Dr. R. I. Bromley, and nearby a large and very regular mortar, also at present the property of Dr. Bromley.

 

All of these relics were found the same afternoon, and were all within a few feet of one another and close to the bed-rock, perhaps within a foot of it.  Mr. Neale declares that it is utterly impossible that these relics can have reached the position in which they were found excepting at the time the gravel was deposited, and before the lava cap formed.  There was not the slightest trace of any disturbance of the mass or of any natural fissure into it by which access could have been obtained either there or in the neighbourhood.”

 

 

The layer of gold-bearing gravels where they found these bones and tools, is dated to between 38-55 million years old.

In these layers of gold-bearing gravels are also plant and animal fossils that date to between 38-55 million years old.

Layers above have been dated, using the Potassium-Argon method, up to 33 million years old.

 

 

“In a paper read before the American Geological Society and published in its journal, geologist George F. Becker (1891. pp. 192-193) said:

 

"It would have been more satisfactory to me individually if I had myself dug out these implements, but I am unable to discover any reason why Mr. Neale's statement is not exactly as good evidence to the rest of the world as my own would be.

 

He was as competent as I to detect any fissure from the surface or any ancient workings, which the miner recognizes instantly and dreads profoundly.  Someone may possibly suggest that Mr. Neale's workmen 'planted' the implements, but no one familiar with mining will entertain such a suggestion for a moment .... The auriferous gravel is hard picking, in large part it requires blasting, and even a very incompetent supervisor could not possibly be deceived in this way.  In short, there is, in my opinion, no escape from the conclusion that the implements mentioned in Mr. Neale's statement actually occurred near the bottom of the gravels, and that they were deposited where they were found at the same time with the adjoining pebbles and matrix."

 

^^^

All these accounts (and many more), are extensively detailed in:

Forbidden Archaeology

The Hidden History of the Human Race

Michael Cremo and Richard Thomson

Section 5.5.3  -  Tuolumne Table Mountain

 

The Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California

Harvard University’s Peabody Museum of Natural History

1880

Dr. Josiah Dwight Whitney

State Geologist of California

 

 

 

You, the reader, might be wondering something like:

 

“What if the Potassium-Argon dating method is simply wrong, and the human artefacts are therefore much much younger.”

 

OK then!

Great!

Many alternative ancient historians have been screaming this for decades now – that the geological record, having been built based on the assumption of gradual incremental changes as we see them today (thereby calibrating the dating methods according to this assumption), the geological record might be much much younger than we think it is, much more contracted.  So, maybe that lava cap was much younger.  Maybe those plant fossils, that we had previously dated, in other rock strata, around the world, using the same Potassium-Argon dating, were also much much younger, thereby perpetuating the error with any subsequent finds.

 

 

 

Out of the various ways in which one may go about dating ancient stone, the only one that would work on the ~100-million–year theoretical timescales involved here, at Table-Mountain, is, indeed, the Potassium-Argon dating method.

 

 

Radiocarbon dating method:

Max = 70 thousand years.

 

Luminescence (optically or thermally stimulated) dating method:

Max = 1 million years.

 

Electron Spin Resonance dating method:

This has a maximum range of 3 million years, but requires the material to be uranium-bearing.

 

Cosmogenic Nuclides dating method:

“Radioactive decay of cosmic-ray generated nuclides in surficial environments”

Max = 5 million years.

Only on exposed rock surfaces.  Would not work under Table Mountain.

 

The only remaining dating method, that does not require uranium-bearing materials is:

The Potassium-Argon dating method:

Max range = 1 billion years (theoretically).

 

 

 

In Gareth Samuel’s See The Pattern  youtube entitled:

Rapid Stratification Experiments Raise Questions about how we Date Rock Layers!

  @ ~7:00

  Gareth says:

 

“Brent Dalrymple who is a leading specialist in Potassium-Argon dating, has given examples of several volcanoes, where the year of eruption is historically known, and where the Potassium-Argon dating is completely divergent.”

 

 

 

The whole point of this current page, is, again, to establish a comprehensive baseline of the frequency of cyclical ecological stresses and ecological bonanzas; and of the nature and possible amplitude of various ecological processes that we are unfamiliar with today; and to also give a sense of volatility – the random assaults or the random concentrated bonanzas, ecologically speaking.

 

If the Potassium-Argon dating method is the primary method we use to date the goings-on of our very ancient ancestors, and other creatures, like Dinosaurs and their ancient plant-friends; then maybe the frequency of the visible changes in ecology and climate and geology, visible in the rocks, tens of millions of years ago, maybe (if you, the reader, would like to bring the Table-Mountain human artefacts to within more reasonable time-frames), maybe what we think happened tens of millions of years ago, was only millions of years ago, or in some cases, only hundreds of thousands of years ago.

 

If this is so, then our baseline of frequency of events has just contracted by an order of magnitude or so.  If we see geomagnetic reversals occurring at certain intervals in the rock strata, and now the geologic record is contracted by a factor of ten, then maybe the next geomagnetic reversal would be ten times sooner, for example.  Or, we’ve been around for up to 55 million years.  Take your pick.  Of course, it’s not that simple, because the geologic record was not built from the Potassium-Argon method alone.  But, it being the primary method for the range of time that we think us primates have been “evolving”, at least that part of the geological/”evolutionary” record would benefit from healthy scrutiny.

 

      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most people dwelling in the Sahara region, while it is thick with lush greenery, full of wildlife, lakes, forests, mangrove marshes, and extensive river systems, from coast to coast to coast, – most people dwelling in this are not aware that the Sahara region will eventually return to desert, like clockwork.

Most people dwelling in the Sahara region, while it is desert, barren, without a scrap of wildlife, or green vegetation, and all the mega-lakes have dried up, and the forests have been cleared, – most people dwelling in this are not aware that the Sahara region will eventually return to lush green water-rich wilderness, like clockwork.

 

Every 20 thousand years or so, the Sahara region switches from desert to green paradise, and then back to desert.  Seeing as this cycle involves geologically very large things over very large areas, it is generally hard to notice and track, due to our relative speed of perception of these events, and so: during the thousands of years of desert, it seems like it has always been desert; and during the thousands of years of green, it seems to have always been green.  This has been consistently transpiring for a few million years now (within the current geological paradigm, and with the information currently available).

 

Smack-dab in the middle of the Sahara, located 1000 miles south of Algiers, “Tassili n’ Ajjer”, which translates to “Plateau of Rivers”, a seemingly sarcastic name, is the site of the first modern discovery of the remnants of an amazingly rich, lush, green Sahara:

 

 

“Carved and painted on the rocky cliff walls, usually under an overhanging ledge, were pictures of animals now found only deep in the jungles and savannahs of Central Africa.  Great processions of elephants, antelopes, and wild buffalo marched across the rock.  Hippopotamuses, crocodiles, and water snakes swam over the stones.  And baboons, wild boar, ostriches, and lions cavorted around the walls.  All the animals now associated with tropical Africa are seen in the paintings – plus some prehistoric beasts that are now extinct.

 

Obviously, the climate of this area was once much, much different.  Great life-giving rivers bordered by teeming, humid jungles must have once flowed through what is now only an endless sea of sand.  How different life must have been for the people who lived here then!

 

The animal pictures most often appear on the exposed faces of high cliffs.  Deeper inside the natural caves, however, the drawings show the people themselves: farming, dancing, hunting, herding animals, and playing music.  The drawings have a simple, childish, and sometimes comic character, with the women looking like plump little butterballs.  (Perhaps fat was beautiful for these people.  Certainly they suffered no food shortages!)”

 

Where Did They Go?

James Cornell

pages 3-7

Scholastic Book Services, 1976

 

 

 

“The hippopotamus, shown being hunted from canoes, indicates the existence of living rivers.  And for a huge beast such as an elephant – which eats an average of 450 pounds of forage a day – to have lived on the Tassil N’ Ajjer and the surrounding area, there must have been a dense cover of vegetation.  This must have existed, too, to satisfy the appetites of a large number of domesticated animals, whose existence can be assumed from the many painted pastoral scenes.  …”

 

 “…  There is a wide variety of colour and pattern in the coats of the animals, and the cows’ udders are well-developed – both characteristics which point to an advanced stage of domestication.  As far as can be judged from the paintings, the cattle seem to have been in excellent physical condition, and their graceful outlines are a further indication of very good pasture.”

 

The World’s Last Mysteries

Henri Lhote

Author of a short summary in this Reader’s Digest special

The Reader’s Digest Association, 1978

Page 214

 

 

“… until about 5,000 years ago, Lake Chad still covered a considerable area.  Rivers such as the Tilemsi, the Tafassasset, the Timmersoi and the Tamanrasset ran regularly, keeping the region moist and encouraging the growth of a luxuriant carpet of vegetation.  The peaks of the Hoggar, the Tassili N’ Ajjer, and the Tibesti enjoyed a Mediterranean climate, and analyses of ancient pollens have shown that Allepo-pine grew there, together with cypresses, cedars, ash trees, evergreen oaks, nettle trees, walnuts, alders, myrtle, limes and olives.”

 

^^^

Page 212

 

 

“ … The present camel period started around 2,000 years ago.”

 

^^^

Page 209

 

 

 

Might it be the case that regions other than the Sahara are significantly affected by the same phenomenon?  What else is there we don’t know?  This is so fundamental.  What other cyclical climate-changing processes are we unaware of?  Our view that all of the regions that we inhabit have been the way they are forever, is a nice little cozy fabrication of ours.  Ecosystems change drastically on millennial timescales, not just over millions of years.

Our view of a constant stable unchanging climate maintaining an orderly ecological balance across the globe, over thousands of years, until we showed up on the scene, is simply a silly invention.  A view eagerly adopted and promoted by self-hating humans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“There is a huge correlation between historical large volcanic eruptions and the spread of global disease pandemics.  There is a correlation between these climate-change events and war and conflict as people fight over limited resources.

 

So, you can go through the history of civilization, and tie it to very strong correlations with changes in our geology systems [and] our climate systems, and I’ll give you one of the most interesting examples:

 

The rise of the Roman Empire.  This comes from a wonderful paper that involved Harvard historian Michael McCormick and others.  [The rise of the Roman Empire] corresponded to a very strong monsoon climate in North Africa, which was making the Nile river flood reliably, every year, and so enormous grain crops were grown.  Of course, Rome controlled North Africa, so boatloads of this grain was being shipped to Rome.  It’s how they fed their people.  It’s how they paid their army.  And so, this was the golden age of Rome. 

 

Well, starting about the year 150 AD, that started to tail off, and by the year 300, that monsoon system in North Africa had largely shut off.  No more grain.  Couldn’t pay the army.  The Army [then] rebels, and from the year 300 onward the Roman and Byzantine empires really are struggling.

 

This is also a period of multiple extreme weather events – extreme droughts, extreme floods, famines.  And, the final blow happened in the years 536 and 540.  2 massive volcanoes – one in Iceland [and] one in El Salvador, dropped global climate several degrees, for decades.  We see that in tree-ring evidence [and] we see that in ice-core evidence, and this was the first global pandemic of the bubonic plague, which corresponds to this time.

 

So, you can trace back our history – our rise and fall of our civilizations, and motions of people around the world, and it’s in both a history book and a geology book, and it’s just so cool to combine them together and put them side by side.”

 

Michael Wysession

Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences

Washington University in St. Louis

In conversation with The Great Courses Select

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Every so often, the entire Juan De Fuca tectonic plate suddenly ruptures and shoves itself under the North American plate, all at once, like a big unzipping of the skin of the Earth, off the coasts of Southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California, all the way down, all in one fell swoop, inducing a magnitude 9 undersea earthquake, inducing the formation of a significant tsunami, while causing the entire coastal landmass to subside (drop in altitude), by around 10 feet, which, along with the tsunami, inundates lower-lying coastal forests with salt water, poisoning the trees, creating ghost forests that still stand to this day, whose tree-rings have been dated.

The last time this happened was in the year 1700 (precisely 1700, on January 26th, at 9pm, based on tree-rings, and an account of the wave reaching Japan).  Before that, based on radio-carbon dating of the inundated vegetation smothered by incoming sand washed in by the tsunamis, the same horrendous situation occurred between 1013-1064, and before that, between 647-710, and before that between 349-409, and before that sometime between 703 BC - 364 BC.  Before that, based on dating the remnants of sub-marine landslides (“turbidites”) that accompany this massive shaking of the earth, it seems as though the interval between these cataclysms is around once every 500 years, but it’s not exactly every 500 years, it’s all over the place.  Sometimes a thousand years will go by without a single one, but then they will cluster and happen more frequently during other stretches lasting a couple thousand years apiece.

Within this context, the fact that 3 unzippings of the Juan De Fuca/North-America plate boundary occurred within 600 years, indicates that this period (~349 - ~1064 AD) was one of those unusual concentrations of these unzippings.  Before the 349-409 unzipping/quake/tsunami event, there had not been a single one for at least 700 years, and possibly up to 1000 years previous. 

 

Calibrated date-ranges provided by Brian Atwater

USGS, University of Washington

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

300 AD

  April

 

“A strange star was seen in the south.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

Extracted From The Chinese Annals

John Williams, F.S.A.

1871

page 26

 

 

 

301

  January

 

“A comet appeared in S. D. New, to the west.  It pointed to Tien She.”

 

 “S. D. New determined by a, b, &c. Capricorni.”

 

  May

 

“A comet was seen near the star Tse.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 26

 

“Star Tse, H Herculis.”

 

 

 

302

  May

 

“A comet was seen in the daytime.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 26

 

 

 

303

  April

 

“A comet was seen in the east.  It pointed towards San Tae.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 27

 

“San Tae, the stars in feet of Ursa Major.”

 

 

 

303

  May

 

“The walls of Edessa were broken down [by flood waters] the second time in the days of Diocletian the king.”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

Cowper, Benjamin Harris (1865)

Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record. 5 (9): 28-45

Online edition by Robert Pearce, 2003

 

This Chronicle of Edessa is not of the modern coastal city of Lebannon, but what is now Şanlıurfa in modern day Turkey.

 

 

 

303

 5th December

 

“A star fell in the middle of the day, from the north of the zenith.  Its light became white, and there was an explosion similar to a thunderclap.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

Pendant Vingt-Quatres Siècles

Édouard Biot

1846

 

à “General Catalog of Shooting Stars

and Other Meteorites Observed in China

Over the Course of Twenty-Four Centuries”

 

 

 

304

  May

 

“There was a strange star in S. D. Peih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 27

 

“S. D. Peih determined by a, g, d, &c. Tauri.”

 

 

 

304/305

 

“… there ensued wars and revolts, famine and plagues and incessant droughts, so that the living were insufficient to bury the dead. Thunderbolts and terrors were sent forth so that each person thought only about himself and many of the ordinances remained in abeyance.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

Byzantine chronicler (~759 – ~818)

Translated by Cyril Mango And Roger Scott

with the assistance of Geoffrey Greatrex

Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997

 

 

 

305

  September

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Maou and Peih.”

 

“S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.”

“S. D. Peih determined by a, g, d, &c. Tauri.”

 

  November

 

“There was a comet in Pih Tow, near the star Seuen Ke.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 27

 

“Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major.”

“Seuen Ke, same as Teen Ke, g Ursæ Majoris.”

 

 

 

307

 15th September

 

There appeared a star as large as the sun.  From the south-west she glided to the north-east.  Another, smaller one, large as a bushel, followed it.  The sky was all red, and a noise was heard similar to thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

310

 23rd October

 

“A fiery star fell in the north-west with great noise.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

319/320

 

“A most violent earthquake shook Alexandria, with many houses collapsing and considerable loss of life”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

329

  August

 

“There was a comet in the north-west.  It entered into S. D. Tow.  After 23 days it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 27

 

“S. D. Tow determined by  z, t, s, f, &c. Sagittarii.”

 

 

 

330/331

 

“The basilica at Nicomedia was burned down by a divine fire.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

331/332

 

“A famine occurred in the East which was so extremely severe that villagers gathered together in great throngs in the territory of the Antiochenes and of Kyros and assailed one another and stole [food] in attacks by night and, finally, even in daylight they would break into the granaries, looting and stealing everything in the storehouses before they went away.  A modius of corn cost 400 pieces of silver. 

 

Constantine the Great graciously gave an allowance of corn to the churches in each city to provide continuous sustenance for widows, the poor in hostels, and for clerics. The Church in Antioch received 36,000 modii of corn.

 

In the same year, during a very severe earthquake in Cyprus, the city of Salamis collapsed and killed a considerable number.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

333

 

“There was a star-fall six french miles north-east ofYe (Tchang-te-fou du Ho-nan).  The meteor was initially red-black: a yellow cloud extended like a curtain, occupying several hundred feet; a rolling muffled sound like thunder made itself heard.  The meteor fell to earth and threw out a burning vapour: the dust climbed to the heavens.

 

Laborourers went in to examine the area: the earth was hot.  They saw a large stone larger than a foot, dark-blue, rather light; which resounded like an instrument.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

333/334

 

“In Antioch a star appeared in the eastern part of the sky during the day, emitting much smoke as though from a furnace, from the third to the fifth hour.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

336

  February 16

 

“A comet was seen in the evening, in the west.  Its place was in S. D. Kwei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 27

 

“S. D. Kwei determined by b, d, e, &c. Andromedæ and others in Pisces.”

 

 

 

340

  March 5

 

“There was a comet in Tae Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 28

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

 

 

 

340/341

 

“Antioch was shaken by severe earthquakes for three days.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

341/342

 

“During a severe earthquake in Cyprus, the greater part of the city of Salamis fell.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

342/343

 

“During a severe earthquake, Neocaesarea in Pontos was destroyed except the church, the bishop's palace, and the pious men who were there.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

343

  December 8

 

“A comet was seen in S. D. Kang.  Its length was 7 cubits.  Its colour was white.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 28

 

“S. D. Kang determined by  i, k, l, q Virginis.”

 

 

 

343/344

 

“The island of Rhodes collapsed during a severe earthquake.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

344/345

 

“Dyrrachium in Dalmatia was destroyed by an earthquake and Rome suffered tremors for three days. Twelve cities in Campania were destroyed.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

347/348

 

“Most of the city of Berytos in Phoenicia collapsed during a severe earthquake.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

348/349

 

“A thunderbolt from heaven struck the rest [of the fleeing Persian army] and the din of thunder, of gloomy clouds, and violent rain brought panic to all so that the majority died of fright.

 

Assailed on all sides, the new Pharaoh, Sabores, was overcome by the waves of fear. Directing his gaze at the collapsed section of wall, he saw an angel in brilliant apparel standing on the top, holding the emperor Constantius by the hand.  Terrified by this, he threatened the magi with instant death.  When they had learned the reason, they admitted in their interpretation to the emperor that the vision had greater power than they had.

 

Having, therefore, recognized the cause of the danger and being filled with fear, he ordered that the war engines be burned and that the remaining equipment which had been prepared for the war be destroyed.

 

He himself with his entourage made for his country in flight, but they perished first from a pestilential disease.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

Just as Travis Walton “remembered” seeing things after being struck by a lightning bolt a foot wide, could it be that those who reported this were suffering from similar problems?

Could Sabores have hallucinated a vision, as a result of a lightning strike, or “remembered” the vision retrospectively, and his description – his report, his interpretation, eventually made it to Theophanes – a report from that side of the war.  How else would Theophanes be so detailed about what was happening on the other side?  So, could it be that that the weather was real, the battle was real, and the bolts were real, then Sabores, after getting zapped, hallucinated, saw an “angel”, then he told his men the “vision”, then maybe the news spread of this to the Byzantine/Roman side, and the Romans gladly agreed with the interpretation of the “vision”?

 

 

 

 

349

  November 23 – February 13 350

 

“In the reign of Muh Te, the 5th year of the epoch Yung Ho, the 11th moon, day Yih Maou, a comet was seen in S. D. Kang.  It was bright, and directed towards the west.  Its colour was white.  It was 10 cubits in length.  In the 1st moon of the 6th year, on the day Ting Chow (February 13, 350), the comet was still visible in S. D. Kang.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 28

 

“S. D. Kang determined by  i, k, l, q Virginis.”

 

 

 

354

 14th May

 

“There appeared a shooting star as large as a bushel: its color was reddish-yellow.  …  A sound was heard similar to that of thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

354/355

 

“… while Cyril was bishop of Jerusalem, the sign of the life-giving Cross appeared in the sky on the day of Pentecost. It was luminous and stretched from Golgotha, where Christ was crucified, to the Mount of Olives, where He was taken up.  All round the sign that appeared was a crown like the rainbow.  And on the same day it was seen by Constantius.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

There is a note, in the edition of Theophanes used here, which is strange but intriguing:

 

“In the year 663 (AD 352), a cross appeared in the sky in the East on the fifth of the month iyar ( = May)', Jacob of Edessa in Elias Nis. 256.”

 

That’s the note, in the edition of Theophanes used here.

But this note is under an entry for 354.

The editors of the edition are clearly insinuating something…

If Jacob of Edessa is off by 2 years and his account was from 354 instead of 352, this would match the Chinese account above (in May + toward the East).

 

 

 

 

 

 

358

  July 1

 

“A comet was seen in Teen Chuen, in S. D. Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 28

 

“S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca.”

 

 

 

358

 

“Some terrible earthquakes took place in Macedonia, Asia Minor, and Pontus, and their repeated shocks overthrew many towns, and even mountains.  But the most remarkable of all the manifold disasters which they caused was the entire ruin of Nicomedia, the metropolis of Bithynia; which I will here relate with truth and brevity.

 

On the 23rd of August, at daybreak, some heavy black clouds suddenly obscured the sky, which just before was quite fair.  And the sun was so wholly concealed that it was impossible to see what was near or even quite close, so completely did a thick lurid darkness settle on the ground, preventing the least use of the eyes.

 

Presently, as if the supreme deity were himself letting loose his fatal wrath, and stirring up the winds from their hinges, a violent raging storm descended, by the fury of which the groaning mountains were struck, and the crash of the waves on the shore was heard to a vast distance.  And then followed typhoons and whirlwinds with a horrid trembling of the earth, throwing down the whole city and its suburbs.

 

And as most of the houses were built on the slopes of the hills, they now fell down one over the other, while all around resounded with the vast crash of their fall.  In the meantime the tops of the hills re-echoed all sorts of noises, as well as outcries of men seeking their wives and children, and other relations.

 

At last, after two hours, or at least within three, the air became again clear and serene, and disclosed the destruction which till then was unseen.  Some, overwhelmed by the enormous masses of ruins which had fallen upon them, were crushed to death.  Some were buried up to the neck, and might have been saved if there had been any timely help at hand, but perished for want of assistance; others were transfixed by the points of beams projecting forth, on which they hung suspended.

 

Here was seen a crowd of persons slain by one blow; there a promiscuous heap of corpses piled in various ways — some were buried beneath the roofs of falling houses, which leant over so as to protect them from any actual blows, but reserved them for an agonizing death by starvation.  Among whom was Aristaenetus, who, with the authority of deputy, governed Bithynia, which had been recently erected into a province; and to which Constantius had given the name of Piety, in honour of his wife Eusebia, (a Greek word, equivalent to Pietas in Latin); and he perished thus by a lingering death.

 

Others who were overwhelmed by the sudden fall of vast buildings, are still lying entombed beneath the immovable masses.  Some with their skulls fractured, or their shoulders or legs cut through, lay between life and death, imploring aid from others suffering equally with themselves; but in spite of their entreaties they were abandoned.

 

Not but what the greater part of the temples and buildings and of the citizens also would have escaped unhurt, if a fire had not suddenly broken out, which raged with great violence for fifty days and nights, and destroyed all that remained.

 

I think this a good opportunity to enumerate a few of the conjectures which the ancients have formed about earthquakes.  For as to any accurate knowledge of their causes, not only has that never been attained by the ignorance of the common people, but they have equally eluded the long lucubrations and subtle researches of natural philosophers.

 

And on this account in all priestly ceremonies, whether ritual or pontifical, care is taken not at such times to name one god more than another, for fear of impiety, since it is quite uncertain which god causes these visitations.”

 

Roman History

Ammianus Marcellinus

Book 17

Chapter 7

London: Bohn (1862)

Online edition: Roger Pearse, 2007

 

Woah, woah, woah….

“Earthquake”?

Last time I checked earthquakes don’t cause whirwinds.

There is great mystery in this account.

 

 

 

361

 

“Just as winter was approaching, there was a fearful scarcity of water, so that some rivers were dried up, and fountains too, which had hitherto abounded with copious springs. But afterwards they all were fully restored.

 

And on the second of December, as evening was coming on, all that remained of Nicomedia was destroyed by an earthquake, and no small portion of Nicaea.”

 

Roman History

Ammianus Marcellinus

Book 22

Chapter 13

 

 

 

361/362

 

“Julian, who was residing in Antioch and continually went up to Daphne to honour the idol of Apollo, did not receive any reply from it, which he was expecting.  And realizing that the relics of the holy martyr Babylas, which lay in Daphne, were keeping the idol silent, he sent out a decree that all the relics of the dead buried there, including those of the martyr, were to be moved.

 

When this happened, the temple was burned down completely during the night [by a fire] from heaven, and the idol was so burned up that not a trace of it remained (it was said to have stood for years), while the temple was so utterly destroyed that men in later times who saw its ashes marvelled at this miracle of God's miracle-working.

 

Julian, being amazed at this, and suspecting that it was the result of a plot by the Christians, began an investigation of the priests who lived there, subjecting them to all kinds of tortures, so that some of them died.

 

The only thing he learned from them was that this was not the work of Christians nor any human plot, but that the fire which burned the temple and the statues had descended from heaven, and that on that night, as the fire came down, it had appeared to some people in the countryside.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

 

362/363

 

“In these times the Holy Cross was seen shining in the heavens, from Golgotha to the holy Mount of Olives, circled by a wreath of light; it was even brighter than in the time of Constantius.  Of its own accord the sign of the Cross appeared on altar-cloths, books and church vestments as well as on clothes not only of Christians but also of Jews, not only in Jerusalem but in Antioch and other cities.  Those Jews and pagans who impudently did not believe, found their clothes covered with crosses.  On some they were even black.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

363

  August

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Keo and Kang.  It entered the boundary of Teen She.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 28

 

“S. D. Keo determined by a Virginis and another.”

“S. D. Kang determined by  i, k, l, q Virginis.”

 “Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.”

 

 

363

 

“For several days in succession many terrible omens were seen, as if the gods were offended, since those who were skilled in the interpretation of prodigies foretold that impending events would be melancholy.

 

For the statue of Maximian Caesar, which was placed in the vestibule of the palace, suddenly lost the brazen globe, formed after the figure of the heavens, which it bore in its hand.  Also the beams in the council chamber sounded with an ominous creak; comets were seen in the daytime, respecting the nature of which natural philosophers differ.”

 

Roman History

Ammianus Marcellinus

Book 25

Chapter 10

 

 

 

In the 363 Galilee earthquake, the Jewel of Arabia, the masterwork of accomplished water harvesters, the city of Petra, was “fatally damaged”, along with its advanced water management system.

 

 

 

 

364

 

“And when they, having collected out of all the provinces, were laying new foundations, on a sudden an earthquake took place at night, and all the stones are said to have been shaken from the very bottom of the foundation, and to have been scattered far and wide.  Moreover, a ball of fire came out of the inner part of the temple, and threw down many of their houses with the conflagration which it caused.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

Translated from the original by

C.D. Yonge, B.A.

Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden, London

 

 

 

365

 

“Valens [364-378] took Rome and adhered to the faith of Nicaea.  He declared as Augustus his son Gratianus.  Then he went to Marcianopolis in Egypt.  When he arrived there an earthquake occurred, the likes of which had never happened, and had never been heard of.  For when the sea shook, it hurled ships over the city wall and then retreated to a lower level than before.  A multitude of folk gathered to loot the ships.  But then the sea returned and drowned all of them and then spread out over the land, engulfing many cities and districts.”

 

Chronicle of Michael the Syrian (Michael the Great)

Patriarch of the Syrians

1195?

Translated from Classical Armenian

by Robert Bedrosian

page 84 (pdf page number)

 

 

 

365

  July 21

 

 

“While this usurper [Procopius] yet lived, whose various deeds and whose death I have described, on 21 July in the year in which Valentinian was consul for the first time with his brother [A.D.  365], fearsome terrors suddenly strode through the whole circle of the world, the like of which neither legends nor truthful ancient histories tell us.

 

Slightly after daybreak, and heralded by a thick succession of fiercely shaken thunderbolts, the solidity of the whole earth was made to shake and shudder, and the sea was driven away, its waves were rolled back, and it disappeared, so that the abyss of the depths was uncovered and many-shaped varieties of sea-creatures were seen stuck in the slime; the great wastes of those valleys and mountains, which the very creation had dismissed beneath the vast whirlpools, at that moment, as it was given to be believed, looked up at the sun's rays.

 

Many ships, then, were stranded as if on dry land, and people wandered at will about the paltry remains of the waters to collect fish and the like in their hands; then the roaring sea as if insulted by its repulse rose back in turn, and through the teeming shoals dashed itself violently on islands and extensive tracts of the mainland, and flattened innumerable buildings in towns or wherever they were found.  Thus in the raging conflict of the elements, the face of the earth was changed to reveal wondrous sights.

 

For the mass of waters returning when least expected killed many thousands by drowning, and with the tides whipped up to a height as they rushed back, some ships, after the anger of the watery element had grown old, were seen to have sunk, and the bodies of people killed in shipwrecks lay there, faces up or down.

 

Other huge ships, thrust out by the mad blasts, perched on the roofs of houses, as happened at Alexandria, and others were hurled nearly two miles from the shore, like the Laconian vessel near the town of Methone which I saw when I passed by, yawning apart from long decay.”

 

Roman History

Ammianus Marcellinus

Book 26

Chapter 10

 

Translation taken from:

Ammianus and the Great Tsunami

Gavin Kelly

The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 94 (2004), pp. 141-167

 

Again, earthquakes alone shouldn’t produce things like a “thick succession of fiercely shaken thunderbolts”.  Another mysterious report.  There are “earthquake lights” so there may be an electrical connection to earthqakes, but the scale here seems unusual, and they occurred before “heralded by” the quaking, unless what was meant by this was: at the very same time.

 

 

 

 

369

  March

 

“In the reign of Te Yih, the 4th year of the epoch Tae Ho, the 2nd moon, a strange star was seen in Tsze Kung, near its western boundary.  In the 7th moon it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 29

 

“Teze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

 

 

369

 10th December

 

“A large shooting star fell in the west.  A noise was heard like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

370

 

“The true wool mixed with snow flowed from the clouds.”

 

Annals of Magdeburg

 

found within:

Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH)

Georg Heinrich Pertz

Volume 16, 1859

page 124

 

 

 

372

 

“Niceus was completely overturned by an earthquake.”

 

Annals of Magdeburg

 

“Nicaea”?

 

 

 

373

  March 9 – September 25

 

“In the reign of the Emperor Haou Woo, the 1st year of the epoch Ning Kang, the 1st moon, day Ting Sze, there was a comet in S. D. Neu, Heu, Te, Kang, Keo, Chin, Yih, and Chang.  In the 2nd moon, day Ping Seuh, the comet was seen in S. D. Te.  In the 9th moon, day Ting Chow (September 25), the comet was in Teen She.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 29

 

“S. D. Neu determined by e, m, &c. Aquarii.”

“Heu determined by b Aquarii and others.”

“Te determined by a, b, &c. Libræ.”

“Keo determined by a and x Virginis.”

“Kang determined by i, k, l, q Virginis.”

“Chin determined by b, &c. Corvi.”

“Yih determined by a and others in Crater.”

“Chang determined by k, l, m Hydræ .”

“Teen She, the space bounded by Serpens.”

 

“The 'She Ke' has this comet under the 2nd year, 1st and 3rd moons.

This would make it A.D. 374, February and March.”

 

 

 

375

 

“For a very few days before some of those comets, which ever give token of the ruins of lofty fortunes, and of which we have already explained the origin, appeared in the heavens.  Also, a short time before, a thunderbolt fell at Sirmium, accompanied with a terrific clap of thunder, and set fire to a portion of the palace and senate-house: and much about the same time an owl settled on the top of the royal baths at Sabaria, and pouring forth a funeral strain, withstood all the attempts to slay it with arrows or stones, however truly aimed, and though numbers of people shot at it in diligent rivalry.”

 

Roman History

Ammianus Marcellinus

Book 30

Chapter 5

 

 

 

381

 20th November

 

“A star ran toward the south-east…  There was a sound like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

386

  April - July

 

“In the 11th year of the epoch Tae Yuen, the 3rd moon, there was a comet in Nan Tow.  It was visible until the 6th moon (July), when it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 29

 

“Nan Tow, same as S. D. Tow, determined by  l, m, f, s, &c. Sagittarii.”

 

 

 

388

 

“A celestial dog fell in the north-east with noise.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

389

 4th April

 

“A large star came from the east, going to the south.  It had a tail 60-70 feet or degrees which touched the earth.  Noise was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

390

  August 27 – September 17

 

“In the 15th year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, day Jin Shin, there was a comet in Pih Ho.  It crossed Tae Wei, San Tae, and Wan Chung.  It entered Pih Tow.  Its colour was white.  It was about 100 cubits in length.  In the 8th moon, on the day Woo Seuh (September 17), it entered Tsze Wei and disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 29, 30

 

“Pih Ho, a, b, &c. Geminorum .”

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

“San Tae, stars in feet of Ursa Major.”

“Wan Chang, q, u, f Ursæ Majoris.”

“Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major.”

“Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

 

 

393

  March - October

 

“In the 18th year of the same epoch, the 2nd moon, a strange star appeared in the middle of S. D. Sing.  In the 9th moon (October) it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 30

 

“S. D. Sing determined by  a, t, &c. Hydræ.”

 

 

 

394

 

“A star fell in the province of llo-pe (north of the yellow river).  It made a noise like thunder, and emanated a glow which illuminated both sky and ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

400

  March 19 - April

 

“In the reign of Gan Te, the 4th year of the epoch Lung Gan, the 2nd moon, day Ke Chow, there was a comet in S. D. Kwei.  It was more than 30 cubits in length.  It was above Ko Taou, in the western part of Tsze Kung.  It entered Pih Tow Kwei.  It passed on to San Tae.  In the 3rd moon (April) it entered Tae Wei, Te Tso, and Twan Mun.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 30

 

“S. D. Kwei determined by b, d, e Andromedæ and stars in Pisces.”

“Ko Taou, d, e, and others in Cassiopeia.”

“Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.”

“Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major.”

“San Tae, stars in the feet of Ursa Major.”

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

“Te Tso, or Woo Te Tso, b Leonis and stars near.”

“Twan Mun, possibly Teen Mun, between b and n Virginis.”

 

 

 

401

  January 2

 

“There was a comet in Shih Soo, Teen She, and Teen Tsin.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 30

 

“Shih Soo, Corona Borealis.

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.

Teen Tsin, a, b, e, &c. Cygni.”

 

 

 

402

  November 12 – January 403

 

“In the 1st year of the epoch Yuen Hing, the 10th moon, a strange star appeared.  Its colour was white.  It resembled a handful of meal.  Its place was to the west of Tae Wei.  In the 12th moon (January 403), it entered Tae Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 31

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

 

 

 

409

 

“An excessive tempest of hail threatens at Constantinople.”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

413

 

“The walls of Edessa were again broken down by water the third time, in the days of Honorius and Arcadius the victorious kings.”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

415

  June 24

 

“Two comets appeared in Teen She.  They swept Te Tso.  They were in the north of S. D. Fang and Sin.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 31

 

“S. D. Fang determined by  b, d, &c. in Scorpio.”

“Sin determined by a, s, t in Scorpio.”

“Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.”

“Te Tso, a Herculis.”

 

 

 

416

  January 26

 

“A comet was seen in the south-west.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 35

 

 

 

416

  June 27

 

“Two comets were seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 35

 

 

 

416?

 

“Describing a huge volcanic event in the Sunda Straits area (between Sumatra and Java) where Krakatoa is located (“Krakatau” in Javanese), the chronicle known as the Pustaka Raja Purwa (the Book of Ancient Kings) says that a ‘mighty roar of thunder’ came out of a local mountain (Mount Batuwara, now called Pulosari).

 

“There was a furious shaking of the earth, total darkness, thunder and lightning.

 

Then came forth a furious gale together with torrential rain and a deadly storm darkened the entire world.

 

A great flood then came from Mount Batuwara and flowed eastwards to Mount Kamula [now called Mount Gede].”

 

The chronicle then claims that the eruption was so massive that large areas of land sank below sea level, creating the straits which currently separate Sumatra and Java.  Claiming to describe the dramatic course of events, the chronicle says that:

 

“When the waters subsided it could be seen that the island of Java had been split in two, thus creating the island of Sumatra.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

Arrow Books, 2000

pages 377-378

 

 

 

416

 

 7th Month, 14th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

Nihongi

Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to AD 697

translated into English by W. G. Aston, 1896

Cosimo Classics, 2008

volume 1, page 317

 

 

 

418

 

“In the 14th year of the same epoch, 5th moon, day Kang Tsze, there was a comet in Pih Tow Kwei, towards the middle.  In the 7th moon, day Kwei Hae (September 15), the comet appeared in the western part of Tae Wei, above Juy Ke, and below the star Leang.  It was bright, and gradually lengthened until it was about 100 cubits in length.  In its course it swept Pih Tow, Tsze Wei, and Chung Tae.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 31

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

“Juy Ke unascertained.”

“Seang. Several stars having this name occur in Tae Wei: one of these, to the west, is possibly that here referred to.”

“Pih Tow , the seven bright stars in Ursa Major.”

“Kwei in Pih Tow is referred to the square in the same name.”

“Chung Tae, l, m Ursæ Majoris.”

“Tsze Wei, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

 

 

419

  February 7

 

“There was a comet in the western boundary of Tae Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 31

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

 

 

 

422

  March 21

 

“A comet was seen in S. D. Heu and Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 32

 

“S. D. Heu determined by b Aquarii and another.”

“S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.”

 

 

 

422

  December 17

 

“There was a comet in Ying Shih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 32

 

“Yung Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a and others in Pegasus.”

 

 

 

423

  February 13

 

“There was a comet in the eastern part of S. D. Peih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 32

 

“S. D. Peih determined by g Pegasi and a Andromedæ.”

 

 

 

423

  October 15

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Te.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 32

 

“S. D. Te determined by a, b g, n Libræ.”

 

 

 

428

 

“After Dathi, son of Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, had been, twenty three years in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was killed by a flash of lightning, at Sliabh Ealpa.”

 

Annals of the Four Masters

Translated by John O'Donovan

Electronic edition compiled by Emma Ryan

Proof corrections assistance: Marcos Balé

2002

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

A project of University College, Cork, Ireland

http://www.ucc.ie/celt

 

Dates in the Annals of the Four Masters can be off by up to 5 years, especially this far back.

 

 

 

430

 

“Dust came down from heaven.”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

442

  November 1

 

“In the reign of Wan Te, the 19th year of the epoch Yuen Kea, the 9th moon, day Ping Shin, there was a strange star in Pih Tow.  It became a comet, and entered Wan Chang, Kwan and Woo Chay.  It swept S. D. Peih.  It passed near Teen Toze.  It crossed Teen Yuen.  In the winter it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 32

 

“S. D. Peih determined by a, g, d and others in Taurus.

Pih Tow, the seven bright stars in Ursa Major.

Kwan or Shih, Corona Borealis. Wan Chang, q, f, n Ursæ Majoris.

Woo Chay, a, b, q, k Aurigæ and b Tauri.

Teen Tsze, p, r and others in Taurus, near the Hyades.

Teen Yuen, g, d, e and others in Eridanus.”

 

 

 

447

 

“Days as dark as night”

 

The Annals of Wales

Paul Halsall, Fordham University, November 1998

Based on: Ingram, James, translator. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: Everyman Press, 1912.

 

 

 

449

  November 11

 

“A comet was seen in Tae Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 33

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.”

 

 

 

450

 

“A dog was seen.”

 

Annalium Lobiensium Fragmentum

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 193

 

“Visus est canis.”

 

 

 

451

  May 17 – July 13

 

“In the 28th year of the same epoch, the 4th moon, day Yih Maou, a comet was seen in S. D. Maou.  In the 6th moon, day Jin Tsze (July 13), it was seen in the middle of Tae Wei, over against Te Tso.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 33

 

“S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Te Tso , b Leonis and small stars near.

The 'She Ke’ has the day Ke Maou, June 10th.”

 

 

 

452

 6th July

 

“There appeared in the south-west a star as large as five bushels.  It split into 6 or 7 shards.  Noise was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

455

 22th October

 

“A large shooting star illuminated the ground.  Repeated noises were heard.  Many successive strikes.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

 

???

???

???

 

 

 

497

 

“This year a great earthquake shook the province of Pontus.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

Electronic edition compiled by Pádraig Bambury, Stephen Beechinor

Funded by University College, Cork and

Professor Marianne McDonald via the CELT Project

Proof corrections by Pádraig Bambury, Stephen Beechinor

 

Chronicon Scotorum dates this to 495 instead.

 

Annals of Tigernach dates this to 498 instead.

 

 

 

497

 

“A star of marvellous size and brilliancy appeared, shining with one single ray, attached to this ray, was extended a ball of fire, in the shape of a dragon, and out of its mouth proceeded two rays, one of which appeared to extend its length beyond the regions of Gaul, and the other was bent towards the Irish sea, and terminated in seven smaller rays.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

499

 

“Many locusts appeared, but did no great damage that year: but the herbage grew again.  And there was a great earthquake.  And the warm bath of the Iberians failed three days.  And the city of Nicopolis was overthrown, and buried in it all its inhabitants, save the temple, and the bishop, and two Syncelli (sons of his cell).

 

And a sign that was like a spear appeared in heaven many days, in the month Canun the latter (January).”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

500

 

“Many locusts came and destroyed and devoured all the produce.”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

501

  February 13

 

“A tailed star was seen in the horizon.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 33

 

 

 

501

  April 14

 

“There was a comet in the horizon.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 33

 

“This and the preceding are possibly the same comet”

 

 

 

502

  August 22

 

“A great fire appeared on the side of the north, which blazed all night on the twenty-second of Ab (August).”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

503

 

“A certain exceedingly mad man from Africa, named Olympus, while he was in a bath blaspheming the Holy Trinity, was burnt by a thunderbolt which came down on him from heaven.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

503

 

“After Lughaidh, son of Laeghaire, had been twenty five years in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was killed at Achadh Farcha, being struck by a flash of lightning, by the miracles of God, on account of the insult which he had offered to Patrick, as this quatrain states:

 

At Achadh Farcha warlike,

the death of Laeghaire's son, Lughaidh occurred,

Without praise in heaven or here,

a heavy flash of lightning smote him.

 

Annals of the Four Masters

 

 

 

503

 

“In the Books of the Sui dynasty we read:

 

"In the Liang dynasty (A. D. 502—557), in the second year of the T'ien kien era (503), there were dragons fighting in a pool in Northern Liang province.  They squirted fog over a distance of some miles.

 

As to the evils of dragons and snakes the Hung fan wu hing chu’en  says :

 

“These are trouble and damage of dragons and beasts. That which belongs to Heaven is symbol of the Ruler. If the Heavenly breath is injured, and the Tao of the ruler is wounded, also the dragons are injured. Their fights are symbols of weapons and shields.”

 

King Fang says in his Yih Fei heu ("Flying observations on divination"):

 

“When the hearts of the multitude are not quiet, dragon fights are the bad omens thereof.  At that time the Emperor for the first time ascended the throne, and there was a riot of Ch’en Poh-chi and Liu Li-lien. Danger and fear prevailed in the empire.”

 

The Dragon in China and Japan

Marinus Willem de Visser

1913

pages 46-47

 

Sourced from:

Exodus to Arthur

Catastrophic Encounters with Comets

Mike Baillie, 1999

 

 

 

506

 

 3rd Month

 

“[The Emperor] went out and in at all times, taking no care to avoid storms and torrents of rain.  Being warmly clad himself, he forgot that the people were starving from cold; eating dainty food, he forgot that the Empire was famishing.”

 

Nihongi

volume 1, page 407

 

 

 

507

 

 3rd Month

 

  1st Day

 

“The [new] Emperor made a decree, saying:

 

“The Gods of Heaven and Earth must not want a master of their worship; the universe must not fail of a Lord.  Heaven produces the nation, and establishes it by means of a supreme ruler, whom it causes to superintend its supply of food, so that each man’s life may be preserved.”

 

 9th Day

 

“The Emperor made a decree saying:

 

“We have heard that if men are of fit age and do not cultivate, the Empire may suffer famine; if women are of fit age and do not spin, the Empire may suffer cold.  Therefore is it that the sovereigns cultivate with their own hands, so as to give encouragement to agriculture, while their consorts rear silkworms themsleves, so as to encourage the mulberry season.

 

How, then, shall there be prosperity if all, from the functionaries down to the the thousand families, neglect agriculture and spinning?  Let the officials publish this to all the Empire, so that our sentiments may be made known.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 4, 5

 

 

 

511

 10th October

 

“In the north-west of the sky, we heard, in several successive instances, a muffled noise.  A red vapour descended all the way to the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

513

 

 12th Month, 8th Day

 

“An Imperial decree was made, saying:

 

“We, having taken over the Celestial succession, have been wary and fearful.  For a while the Empire has been at peace; within the seas there has been serenity and calm.  Years of abundance have been frequent, redounding to the prosperity of the Land.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 12

 

 

 

518/519

 

“… a star appeared in the East, a terrifying comet which had a ray extending downward. The astronomers described this as 'bearded'.  And there was fear.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

 

524

  21 May – 21 June

 

"In the sixth month of the fifth year of the P’u t'ung era (524 A.  D.) dragons fought in the pond of the King of K’uh o (?).  They went westward as far as Kien ling ch'ing.  In the places they passed all the trees were broken.  The divination was the same as in the second year of the T'ien kien era (503 A.  D.), namely that their passing Kien ling and the trees being broken indicated that there would be calamity of war for the dynasty, and that it was a sign that the Imperial tombs would be destroyed.

 

At that time the Emperor considered the holding of discussions to be his only task, and did not think of ploughing.  His fighting generals were careless, his soldiers idle, and the Tao of the Ruler was injured.  Therefore there was the corresponding fact of the dragons' evil.  The Emperor did not at all become conscious (of the danger).”

 

The Dragon in China and Japan

pages 46-47

 

Citing the Books of the Sui dynasty

 

Sourced from:

Exodus to Arthur

Catastrophic Encounters with Comets

Mike Baillie, 1999

 

 

 

524

 

“During the late Taihe period, beginning about the time of the move to the new capital, rebellions rose up over all of North China and reached a peak in the years 524-525 with the revolt of the men stationed at the six garrison towns on the northern borders of the empire.  …  After their defeat, a large number of the rebel army, destitute and hungry, were sent together with people from the devastated Pingcheng area to Hebei, a normally rich agricultural area, where there was supposed to be more food.  But there was famine in Hebei, and civil unrest spread – to Hebei and farther east to Shangdong.

 

In 524, when rebellions erupted all over North China, Xiao was sent to quell the uprisings in Guanzhong (the area surrounding Chang’an).  There he fought for three years with some initial success.  But his army became worn down by incessant action.  In 527, he suffered a major defeat and retreated to Chang’an.”

 

China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD

James C. Y. Watt and company

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2004

page 30

 

 

 

521-525?

 

“In this period, the waters of Shiloh vanished for 15 years.  In this period too fire fell from the sky and burned the city of Balbek—which Solomon had constructed on Mt.  Lebanon—and the palaces located there.  However there were three stones which Solomon had placed there to the mystery of the Trinity which were undamaged.”

 

Chronicle of Michael the Syrian

page 105-106

 

 

 

525

  April 18th?

 

This is Edessa not the modern coastal city of Lebannon, but what is now Şanlıurfa in modern day Turkey.

 

“Now it came about that in the second hour of evening a major flood poured down from the mountains.  It clashed against the [city] [of Edessa] walls and retreated.  The second time it came, it demolished the walls, and coursed over the city, killing man and beast alike by carrying them into the Euphrates River.

 

… Thirty thousand dead [bodies] were recovered from this flood, while the figure given by the city's residents for those known to have been carried away by the waters was 200,000.

 

… A fifth earthquake rocked the entire city and all the buildings, homes, palaces, and churches collapsed.

 

A completely new phenomenon was observed, for the wind delivered the punishment of Sodom.  The river boiled over, and up from the depths came black waters bearing crustaceans, turtles, and the bones of wild animals.  The earth vomited up fire and water.  And fatal fumes arose which brought death to man and beast through different ailments.  For some days fire, like rain, coursed down through the air.  Everyone could hear the wails [of the injured], but no one dared to approach.

 

For one and a half months the earthquakes and the fiery rain continued without cease.  The great basilica, which Constantine had built, shook for seven days like a stalk in the wind until it cracked and fire arose to burn the church.  Only twelve hundred and fifty souls survived these disasters.  Suddenly there appeared a luminous Cross in the sky which disappeared after three days.  And the people cried: "Lord, have mercy, Lord, have mercy." The cries of despair from people trapped [under the rubble] could be heard until their last breath.

 

Other areas also were ruined: Syrian Seleucia by the sea, and the city of Daphne, as well as an area of twenty mil about Antioch, and Anazarbus, the metropolis of Cilicia, and Corinth, the metropolis of Greece.”

 

Chronicle of Michael the Syrian

pages 105-106

 

 

One of many reports that include both earthquake and windstorm, and this time, “fire, like rain, coursed down through the air”, and this time, the same report mentions sightings of “the cross” in the heavens.

Not only this, but another “earthquake”, producing many more anomalies, occurred at Antioch, the very same year:

 

 

 

525

  20 May

 

 “ … the portent which had come to the citizens of Antioch in the reign of Anastasius [491 to 518] reached this final fulfilment for them.  For at that time a violent wind suddenly fell upon the suburb of Daphne, and some of the cypresses which were there of extraordinary height were overturned from the extremities of their roots and fell to the earth--trees which the law forbade absolutely to be cut down.

 

[526 AD] [?]  Accordingly, a little later, when Justinus was ruling over the Romans, the place was visited by an exceedingly violent earthquake, which shook down the whole city and straightway brought to the ground the most and the finest of the buildings, and it is said that at that time three hundred thousand of the population of Antioch perished.  And finally in this capture the whole city, as has been said, was destroyed.  Such, then, was the calamity which befell the men of Antioch.”

 

History of the Wars

Procopius

Book 2, chapter 14

William Heinemann Ltd, London

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Harvard University Press

First Printed 1916

E-text prepared by Jonathan Ingram, jayam, and the Project Gutenberg

Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net/)

 

Not sure about the 526 date.

The Antioch quake was in 525, for sure.

It can’t be the repeat quake in 528, because Justinian would have started his rule by then (in 527)

 (Justinian is not to be confused with Justin I “Justinus”, who preceded him.)

 

 

 

525

  20 May

 

“In this year in October of the 4th indiction the prelude to God's anger visited the city of Antioch. For a great conflagration arrived unseen in the middle of the city, which foretold the coming threat from God.

 

The fire was kindled at the martyrium of St Stephen and extended as far as the Praetorium of the magister militum.  This was the beginning of anguish.  The fires lasted for six months, many houses were burned, and many people perished.

 

No one was able to discover from where the fire was lit; for it flared up from the rooftiles of five-storey buildings.

 

By the mediation of the patriarch Euphrasios the emperor granted to the city two centenaria of gold.  On 20 May of the same 4th indiction, at the seventh hour, while Olybrius was consul in Rome, Antioch, the great city of Syria, suffered inexplicable disaster through God's anger.  So great was the wrath of God towards it that almost the entire city collapsed and became a tomb for its inhabitants.  Some of those who were buried and still alive beneath the ground were burned by fire that came out of the earth.  Another fire came down out of the air like sparks and burned whomever it touched, like lightningThe earth went on shaking for a year.

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

525

  20 May

 

“In the seventh year of his reign, in the month of May, Antioch the Great suffered its fifth calamity from the wrath of God, during the consulship of Olybrius.  Great was the fear of God that occurred then, in that those caught in the earth beneath the buildings were incinerated and sparks of fire appeared out of the air and burned anyone they struck like lightning.

 

The surface of the earth boiled and foundations of buildings were struck by thunderbolts thrown up by the earthquakes and were burned to ashes by fire, so that even those who fled were met by flames.

 

It was a tremendous and incredible marvel with fire belching out rain, rain falling from tremendous furnaces, flame dissolving into showers, and showers kindling like flames consumed even those in the earth who were crying out.

 

As a result Antioch became desolate, for nothing remained apart from some buildings beside the mountain.  No holy chapel nor monastery nor any other holy place remained which had not been torn apart.  Everything had been utterly destroyed.  The great church of Antioch, which had been built by the emperor Constantine the Great, stood for seven days after this tremendous threat from God, when everything else had collapsed to the ground during the wrath of God.  Then it too was overcome by fire and razed to the ground.  Likewise other houses which had not collapsed through the diving calamity were destroyed to their foundations by fire. 

 

In this terror up to 250,000 people perished.  For this was the great festival of the Ascension of Christ our God and a great throng of visitors had come to town.  During the wrath of God it became clear what a great number of citizens there was.  Many of those who had been buried by earth survived to be brought up alive but then died.  Some of the citizens who survived gathered whatever of their possessions they could and fled.  Peasants attacked them, stole their goods and killed them.  But God’s benevolent chastisement of man was revealed even in this, for all those robbers died violently, some by putrefaction, some were blinded and others died under the surgeon’s knife, and after confessing their sins they gave up their souls.

 

Other mysteries of God’s love for man were also revealed.  For pregnant women who had been buried for 20 or even 30 days were brought up from the rubble in good health.  Many, who gave birth underground beneath the rubble, were brought up unharmed with their babies and survived together with the children to whom they had given birth.  Equally other children were brought out alive after 30 days. 

 

Many even more tremendous things occurred.  On the third day after the collapse, the Holy Cross appeared in the sky in the clouds above the northern district of the city, and all who saw it stayed weeping and praying for an hour.

 

After the collapse of the city many other earthquakes occurred during the next 18 months.”

 

The Chronicle of John Malalas

Translated by Elizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott, et. al.  1986

Australian Association of Byzantine Studies

Department of Modern Greek

University of Sydney New South Wales

Pages 239-242

 

 

 

The mayhem in Edessa is, without doubt, the very same mayhem reported in Antioch – the very same phenomenon.  Micheal the Syrian, in the report from Edessa, added:

 

"Other areas also were ruined: Syrian Seleucia by the sea, and the city of Daphne, as well as an area of twenty mil about Antioch, and Anazarbus, the metropolis of Cilicia, and Corinth, the metropolis of Greece.""

 

Wait…

What?

Corinth?

 

Corinth is 1400 km from Edessa.

This was a regional affair, and a long-lasting one.

Might it have been global?

We’ll get back to that in a minute...

 

 

 

Even though the report from Edessa is the same phenomemon as the report from Antioch, the report from Edessa is probably from April 18th, and Antioch is from May 20th, so they might not have been concurrent, which, in fact, would reveal the continual/ongoing nature of the this phenomenon.

There is no calendar day in Micheal the Syrian (above) for the Edessa mayhem, but if you look in The Chronicle of Edessa (which doesn’t offer much detail about the actual event):

 

“And in the year 525 many waters entered Edessa, the fourth time, and broke down the walls of it, and overturned its dwellings and drowned its children, and made in it much destruction.

 

And through this circumstance Asclepius fled from Edessa, and went up to Antioch the city to Euphrasius the patriarch, and he was there, more or less, seventy days, and he died there in Antioch on the 27th in the month Haziran of that year, and was buried there in Antioch.”

 

Haziran is the month of June.  With the 70 days having passed, this would put the Edessa mayhem on April 18th, but, continuing “one and half months”, this would put the Antioch mayhem (May 20th) in the same ball-park as the Edessa mayhem, but not necessarily immediately concurrent with it.  (Unless Micheal the Syrian’s mention of the mayhem at Antioch “as well as an area of twenty mil about Antioch” can be interpreted as meaning the very same event).  Both reports end with “the Holy cross appeared”, so they might very well be on the same day.  If so, I would trust Theophanes’ date of May 20th over this derived date of April 18th.

 

 

 

This was clearly not just “an earthquake” as we know them today:

In Edessa:

 

“The wind delivered the punishment of Sodom.”

 

“The river boiled over, and up from the depths came black waters bearing crustaceans, turtles, and the bones of wild animals.”

 

“The earth vomited up fire and water.”

 

“Fatal fumes arose which brought death to man and beast through different ailments.”

 

“For some days fire, like rain, coursed down through the air.”

 

“For one and a half months the earthquakes and the fiery rain continued without cease.”

 

“Suddenly there appeared a luminous Cross in the sky which disappeared after three days.”

 

 

And at Antioch (+20 mil (30km) circumference around Atioch):

 

“No one was able to discover from where the fire was lit; for it flared up from the rooftiles of five-storey buildings.”

 

“The fires lasted for six months.”

 

“Some of those who were buried and still alive beneath the ground were burned by fire that came out of the earth.”

 

“Another fire came down out of the air like sparks and burned whomever it touched, like lightning.”

 

“Those caught in the earth beneath the buildings were incinerated and sparks of fire appeared out of the air and burned anyone they struck like lightning.”

 

“The surface of the earth boiled and foundations of buildings were struck by thunderbolts thrown up by the earthquakes.”

 

“It was a tremendous and incredible marvel with fire belching out rain, rain falling from tremendous furnaces, flame dissolving into showers, and showers kindling like flames consumed even those in the earth who were crying out.”

 

“On the third day after the collapse, the Holy Cross appeared in the sky.”

 

“The earth went on shaking for a year.”

 

“After the collapse of the city many other earthquakes occurred during the next 18 months."

 

 

This, was not, “an earthquake”.

In fact, these very much resemble the accounts from the Peshtigo fire of 1871 (see below), which also saw violent winds, electrical phenomena, noxious gases, and winding sheets of lurid flame, which selectively ignited individuals – “like lightning”.

 

 

 

Now.

Corinth?

Corinth is 1400 km from Edessa!

So, could this indicate that this was a (long-continuing) global affair?

There is a report (above) of “fire falling from the sky” at Baalbek in 521-525.

And, there are the dragon reports (above) from 524 in China.

 

Maybe the “dragon fights” of 524 were in fact concurrent with this same event?  In the East, might “crosses in the sky” and these other phenomena have been interpreted as dragons?

 

“Another fire came down out of the air like sparks and burned whomever it touched, like lightning.”

 

“It was a tremendous and incredible marvel with fire belching out rain, rain falling from tremendous furnaces, flame dissolving into showers, and showers kindling like flames consumed even those in the earth who were crying out.”

 

And all the other very mysterious reports above – could this have been interepreted as the work of Dragons, in the East?

 

If it was not just a local event (CorinthàEdessa), maybe this was a global event, with the dates between the Chinese and Byzantine chronicles being off by a year?  (???)

The dragon fight was in the sixth month, which is 21 May – 21 June, while the Anitoch mayhem was on May 20.  So, were these events concurrent or otherwise related, or even the very same event on a global scale (in either 524 or 525?)?

 

 

 

In any case, this “earthquake”, probably the worst “earthquake” in this >600-year compilation of calamitous reports, was clearly not just an “earthquake”.

This event, at the very least, was not normal.

And, the fact that it was soon followed by the worst ecological disaster of the last 2000 years (least amount of tree growth in 536 and 541 in the last 2000 years), would indicate that it is not an isolated incident.

 

 

 

 

 

528

 

“… a great fire happened at Antioch, and burned much of what remained from the earthquake; but whence the origin of the fire remains unknown.”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

 

 

530

 

“During the twenty-four years which have elapsed since we took over the Imperial office, the Empire has enjoyed prosperity, and there have been no anxieties at home or abroad.  The veins of the earth have been fertile and the crops have reached maturity.  Our secret fear is that depending on it they may become proud.  Therefore let men be made to practise honest thrift, and let the Great Morality be inculcated, so that a mighty progress may be diffused abroad.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 22

 

 

 

530/531

 

“There appeared an enormous and frightening star in the west. It was a comet that sent upward its flashing rays. People called it The Torch and it continued to shine for twenty days.  All over the world riots and murders occurred.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

Have you ever seen “an enourmous and frightening” comet?

 

 

 

532

  January 6?

 

“A tailed star was seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 33

 

“This date is doubtful.”

 

 

 

531/532

 

“… there occurred a great movement of stars from evening till dawn.  Everyone was terrified and said:  'The stars are falling, and we have never seen such a thing as that before.' ”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

Mike Baillie, in Exodus to Arthur, page 130, citing Clube and Napier, dates this to 524

Clube and Napier, in Cosmic Winter, page 295, citing Ernst Klinkerfues, dates this to 524

Ernst Klinkerfues, in:

On the Great Meteor Shower of the Year 524 AD…

Popular Astronomy #39, page 573, 1931

… this paper by Klinkerfues, cites:

Gottinger Nachtrichten

April 30 1873

pages 275-296

translated by Willard J. Fisher

 

The edition I used above (Clarendon Press 1997) says that this year was the “Year of the divine Incarnation #524”

But, it says that it was AD 531/532

 

 

 

532

 28th August

 

“Stars fell like rain.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

533

  February

 

“A comet was seen.”

 

History of the Southern Dynasties

 

Sourced from within:

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

page 365

 

 

 

535-536

 

“There was a sign from the sun, the likes of which had never been seen or reported before.   The sun became dark, and the darkness lasted for 18 months.  Each day, it shone for about 4 hours, but this light was only a feeble shadow.  Everyone declared that the sun would never recover its full brilliance again.

 

The fruits did not ripen, and the wine tasted like sour grapes.”

 

Syrian bishop John of Ephesus

Reported in:

Chronicle of Michael the Syrian

 

Quoted in:

Volcanic Eruptions in the Mediterranean Before AD 630 from Written and Archaeological Sources

R. B. Stothers and M. R. Rampino

Journal of Geophysical Research #88, 1983

pages 6357-6371

 

Sourced within:

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

page 214

 

 

 

536-537

 

“At this time, a portent occurred in the sky.  For a whole year the sun shone darkly, without rays, like the moon.  Mostly it looked as if it was eclipsed, not shining clearly as was normal.  It was the tenth year of Justinian's rule.  In this time neither war, nor death, stopped weighing upon men.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

536-537

 

“And it came about during this year that a most dread portent took place.  For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during this whole year, and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear nor such as it is accustomed to shed.  And from the time when this thing happened men were free neither from war nor pestilence nor any other thing leading to death.  And it was the time when Justinian was in the tenth year of his reign. [536-537 A.D.]”

 

History of the Wars

Procopius

Book 4, chapter 14

 

 

 

536-537

 

 “And the earth with all that is upon it quaked; and the sun began to be darkened by day and the moon by night, while ocean was tumultuous with spray (?) from the 24th of March in this year till the 24th of June in the following year fifteen.”

 

“And, as the winter was a severe one, so much so that from the large and unwonted quantity of snow the birds perished and . . . , there was distress . . . among men . . . from the evil things. And ... in various countries . . . From the hill of Singara [in the land] of the Persians they took (?)...”

 

Note from the translator, concerning the second paragraph:

 

“The manuscript is here very indistinct, and, as Land's text is very incomplete, I give the text which I follow, conjectural supplements being enclosed in square brackets.”

 

The Syriac Chronicle known as that of Zachariah of Mitylene

Translated into English by F. J. Hamilton, D.D. and E. W. Brooks

M.A. Methuen & Co. 36 Essex street, W.C. London 1899

Book 9, chapter 19

Second quote is from Book 10, chapter 1

 

 

 

November/early-December 535, in South China:

 

“Yellow dust rained down like snow”.

 

December 536

 

“The dust could be scooped up in handfuls.”

 

February 537

 

“It rained ‘hui’ (‘dust’ or ‘ashes’), yellow in colour.”

 

Nan Shi (The History of the Southern Dynasties)

Sourced within:

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

page 214

 

 

 

535

 Spring

 

“The (Japanese) Emperor (Ankan) made a decree, saying: “Of late, for several successive years, the crops have produced well; there have been no frontier anxieties; the people take pleasure in their husbandry; my black-headed subjects of every calling are free from famine; benign influences extend agreeably over the universe; cries of admiration fill heaven and earth; within and without, serenity is everywhere diffused; the commonwealth is flourishing; Our joy is extreme; let there be a Great Revel for five days to the delight of the Empire.”

 

536

  Summer

 

“The Emperor (Senkwa), made an edict saying: “Food is the basis of the Empire.  Yellow gold and ten thousand strings of cash cannot cure hunger.  What avails a thousand boxes of pearls to him who is starving of cold?

 

Now the province of Tsukushi is a place reached by visitors to our Court from far and near; it is a barrier passed by travellers going and coming.  Therefore the countries beyond the sea, awaiting the water of the ocean (the tides), come as our guests: looking up to the clouds of Heaven, they bring us tribute.

 

From the days of the Emperor in the womb down to Ourselves, grain has been stored up and hoards of provisions accumulated as a distant preparation for evil years, and for the cordial entertainment of our good guests.  For the peace of our country there is nothing better than this.

 

We therefore send Asomo no Kimi to transport thither a further supply of grain from the Miyake of the district of Mamuta in Kahachi.

 

Let Soga no Oho-omi and Iname no Sukune send Wohari no Muraji to transport grain of the Miyake of the province of Wohari.

 

Let Arakahi, Mononobe no Ohomuraji send Nihinomi no Muraji to transport grain from the Miyake of Nihinomi.

 

Let Abe no Omi send Iga no Omi to transport grain from the Miyake of the province of Iga.

 

Let there be built a government house at Nanotsu no Kuchi.  Moreover, the Miyake of the three provinces of Tsukushi, Hi, and Toyo are dispersed and remote: transport is therefore impeded by distance.  In the case of an emergency it would be difficult to provide for sudden needs.  Let the various districts therefore be charged each severally to transfer (the Miyake), and to erect one jointly at Nanostu no Kuchi, thus making provision against extraordinary occasions, and long preserving the lives of the people.

 

Speedily go down to the districts and make known to them Our behests.”

 

Nihongi

pages 31 and 34

 

sourced from:

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 246, 247

 

 

 

536

 

“At that time the mountain of Vesuvius rumbled, and though it did not break forth in eruption, still because of the rumbling it led people to expect with great certainty that there would be an eruption. And for this reason it came to pass that the inhabitants fell into great terror.”

 

History of the Wars

Procopius

Book 6, chapter 4

 

 

 

535/536

 

“In this year Pompeiopolis in Mysia suffered from divine anger.  The ground was split by the earthquake, and half the city along with its inhabitants was engulfed. They were beneath the earth and their voices could be heard shouting for mercy. The emperor gave generously towards excavating and assisting them and granted gifts to the survivors.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

535 – April/May

 

“Because of drought, there was an imperial edict, which ordered that in the capital (Chang’ An), and in all the provinces, commanderies and districts, one should bury the corpses.”

 

535 – June/July

 

“[There was] great drought.  [The government] had to provide water at the city gates [of Ch’ang-an] and the hall gates [of the palace] as well as the gates of the government offices.”

 

536 – September

 

“In the north-Chinese  ‘provinces of Bian, Si, Zhuo and Jian, hail fell’  and there was  ‘a great famine’.”

 

536 – December

 

“… the government had to send special inspectors ‘to investigate [the conditions of] the famished refugees who were roaming around north of the Yellow River’.”

 

“And in Shaanxi Province, ‘the land within the Passes’, The Annals of the Western Wei  in the Bei Shi  state that there was ‘a great famine’, and that ‘the people practised cannibalism and 70-80 per cent of the population died’.”

 

537 – March

 

“… because there had been hail and drought in nine provinces, there was a great famine and as the people fled [in search of food], I begged [the Emperor] that the [state] granaries should be open to give relief.”

 

538 – Summer

 

“… in what is now the province of Shandong, there was a massive flood.  The waters rose so high that ‘the toads and frogs were croaking from the trees’.”

 

Bei Shi (The History of the Northern Dynasties)

 

Quoted from within:

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 217, 218

 

 

 

537 – July, August

 

“ ‘In July in Qingzhou and [another province] there was a fall of frost’  and  ‘in August in Qingzhou there was snow’  which  ‘ruined the crops.’ ”

 

538 - September

 

“ ‘Since there had already been deaths from famine,’  there was an amnesty of rents and taxes.”

 

Nan Shi (The History of the Southern Dynasties)

 

Quoted from within:

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 214, 215

 

“The 538 tax amnesty – introduced in 12 provinces because of famine deaths – was repeated in 541, but this time throughout southern China and for a period of five years.  [It was renewed for another 3 years in 546, and renewed again in 549, then renewed yet again in 551.]”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

page 219

 

 

 

538

 

“There was a failure of bread.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

538

(537?)

 

“Since the world is not governed by chance, but by a Divine Ruler who does not change His purposes at random, men are alarmed, and naturally alarmed, at the extraordinary signs in the heavens, and ask with anxious hearts what events these may portend.  The Sun, first of stars, seems to have lost his wonted light, and appears of a bluish colour.  We marvel to see no shadows of our bodies at noon, to feel the mighty vigour of his heat wasted into feebleness, and the phenomena which accompany a transitory eclipse prolonged through a whole year.

 

The Moon too, even when her orb is full, is empty of her natural splendour.  Strange has been the course of the year thus far.  We have had a winter without storms, a spring without mildness, and a summer without heat.  Whence can we look for harvest, since the months which should have been maturing the corn have been chilled by Boreas?  How can the blade open if rain, the mother of all fertility, is denied to it?  These two influences, prolonged frost and unseasonable drought, must be adverse to all things that grow.

 

The seasons seem to be all jumbled up together, and the fruits, which were wont to be formed by gentle showers, cannot be looked for from the parched earth.  But as last year was one that boasted of an exceptionally abundant harvest, you are to collect all of its fruits that you can, and store them up for the coming months of scarcity, for which it is well able to provide.  And that you may not be too much distressed by the signs in the heavens of which I have spoken, return to the consideration of Nature, and apprehend the reason of that which makes the vulgar gape with wonder.

 

The middle air is thickened by the rigour of snow and rarefied by the beams of the Sun.  This is the great Inane [void, empty space], roaming between the heavens and the earth.  When it happens to be pure and lighted up by the rays of the sun it opens out its true aspect; but when alien elements are blended with it, it is stretched like a hide across the sky, and suffers neither the true colours of the heavenly bodies to appear nor their proper warmth to penetrate.  This often happens in cloudy weather for a time; it is only its extraordinary prolongation which has produced these disastrous effects, causing the reaper to fear a new frost in harvest, making the apples to harden when they should grow ripe, souring the old age of the grape-cluster.

 

All this, however, though it would be wrong to construe it as an omen of Divine wrath, cannot but have an injurious effect on the fruits of the earth.  Let it be your care to see that the scarcity of this one year does not bring ruin on us all.  Even thus was it ordained by the first occupant of our present dignity, that the preceding plenty should avail to mitigate the present penury.”

 

Roman statesman Flavius Cassiodorus

The letters of Cassiodorus.

A condensed translation of the variae epistolae

of Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator.

Translated by Thomas Hodgkin, 1886

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Letters of Cassiodorus

Produced by Robert Connal, Linda Cantoni, and the Online

Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net

Book 7, letter 25

pages 518-520

 

Mike Baillie, dendrochronologist extraordinaire, in Exodus to Arthur has lengthy notes about the dating of this passage.  Basically, he thinks it’s 537 instead of 538, but there’s more to it than just that.

 

 

 

 

539

  November 17 – December 1

 

“In the 5th year of the epoch Ta Tung, 10th moon, day Sin Chow, a comet appeared in Nan Tow.  It was about one cubit in length, pointing to the south-east.  It gradually increased to about 10 cubits in length.  In the 11th moon, day Yih Maou (December 1), it entered S. D. Lew and disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 34

 

“S. D. Nan Tow , or Tow , determined by z, t, s, &c. Sagittarii.

S. D. Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis.”

 

 

 

538/539

 

“A great and terrible comet appeared in the sky at evening-time for one hundred days.”

 

The Syriac Chronicle known as that of Zachariah of Mitylene

Book 10, chapter 5

 

 

 

539

  October

 

“In the 13th year of the reign of Justinian, which was the year 850 [539 AD], indiction deutra (the second), a sign like a spear appeared in heaven on the 5th of Tishrin the former (October).”

 

Chronicle of Edessa

 

The Chronicle of Edessa ends in 539.

 

 

 

539

 

“At that time also the comet appeared, at first about as long as a tall man, but later much larger.  And the end of it was toward the west and its beginning toward the east, and it followed behind the sun itself.  For the sun was in Capricorn and it was in Sagittarius.

 

And some called it "the swordfish" because it was of goodly length and very sharp at the point, and others called it "the bearded star"; it was seen for more than forty days.

 

Now those who were wise in these matters disagreed utterly with each other, and one announced that one thing, another that another thing was indicated by this star; but I only write what took place and I leave to each one to judge by the outcome as he wishes.”

 

History of the Wars

Procopius

Book 2, chapter 4

 

 

 

541

 

“There appeared a comet in Gaul, so vast that the whole sky seemed on fire.  In the same year, there dropped real blood from the clouds, and a dreadful mortality ensued.”

 

Flowers of History

Roger of Wendover

Translated from the Latin by J. A. Giles D.C.L.

Henry G. Bohn, London, 1849

 

 

 

Here is a comment (without a specific date) made after the report of the 1066 comet, in the Russian Primary Chronicle:

 

“… it happened likewise in the reign of the Emperor Justinian that a star emitting rays appeared in the west.  Men called it the brilliant star, and it shone forth for twenty days.  Subsequently a shower of stars fell from evening till dawn, so that all thought that the stars of heaven were falling, and again sun shone without light.  This portent presaged rebellions and pestilences, and was fatal to mankind.”

 

The Russian Primary Chronicle

pages 144, 145

 

 

 

 

541/542

 

“On 16 August of the same 5th indiction, a great earthquake occurred in Constantinople, and churches, houses, and the city wall collapsed, especially the part near the Golden Gate.  The spear held by the statue which stands in the Forum of the holy Constantine fell down, as well as the right arm of the statue of the Xerolophos.  Many died and there was great fear.”

 

In this year, in October of the 5th indiction the great plague broke out in Byzantium.”

 

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

538/540

 

“The 18-month-long darkening of the sun which was reported by Roman historians including Procopius in Constantinople in 536 is not referred to as such in any British or English sources – but there is a bizarre reference to two total solar eclipses in entries for two nearby dates – 538 and 540 – in the eighth-century English historian Bede’s chronological ‘synopses’ at the end of his History of the English Church and People

 

These two entries say that in 538 ‘an eclipse of the sun occurred on the 16th of February lasting from Prime [dawn] to Terce [two hours later]’ and that in 540 ‘an eclipse of the sun occurred on the 20th of June, and the stars appeared for nearly half an hour after the hour of Terce’.

      

Bede started his chronological summary in 60 BC and ended it in AD 731.  During that period there were 13 total eclipses visible from Britain, and up to 28 more which were visible from Italy and the eastern Mediterranean – and yet only two that were out of living memory in Bede’s time were included by him.  And those two – the 538 and 540 eclipses – weren’t even visible, as easily noticeable (i.e. total) eclipses, from England.

 

He makes no mention of the total eclipses that would have thrown England into darkness in AD 19, 118, 129, 158, 183, 228, 319, 393, 413, 458, 594, and 639.  And he makes no reference to the much larger number of similar events in Italy and the east Mediterranean – except for 538 and 540.  He even ignores all the Italian and east-Mediterranean total eclipses (603, 656, 655, and 693) which were closer in time to him than 540.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

page 148

 

 

 

537  ->  541

 

“In the year 848 of the Syrian Era [A.D.  537] an event occurred that is beyond belief.  Had I not known about it from many different writings, I myself would not have included it.  The sun was eclipsed for 18 months.  For three hours in the morning it would give light, but a light that resembled neither day nor night.  During that year fruit did not reach the point of maturity, and all the land became as though transformed into something half alive, or like someone suffering from a long illness. 

 

An unprecedented plague ensued (541-542) which began in Constantinople where the first day 5,000 people died, the next day 10,000, the third 15,000, the fourth 18,000—figures reported by the auditors that the emperor had placed at the gates of the city.  They counted up to 300,000 people dead and then left off counting.  The epidemic first attacked the poor class of the population, then the merchants and the nobility including the Imperial Palace.  The trouble began with a wound that formed in the palm of the hand, and progressed until the afflicted one could not take a step.  The legs swelled, then the buboes burst and pus came out.  The city began to stink [from the unburied corpses] and so the bodies were thrown into the sea, but the bodies kept resurfacing.  The emperor ordered that 40 dahegans be paid to people who would carry a corpse out of town, but often the bearers themselves fell dead in the street.  Furthermore, it even happened that someone would enter a deserted house and gather up its treasures to steal, but would end up dying at the door, on the way out.  The plague spread to Egypt where one city was wiped out [in this manner]: only seven men and a boy remained alive there.  As they wandered around the city, suddenly the seven men died on the spot.  Then the lad saw the angel of God in the guise of an old man.  Seeing the child weeping, the angel removed him from the city and said: "Go now and weep not, for this punishment is the payment for heresy and sin.”  ” 

 

Chronicle of Michael the Syrian

page 113

 

 

 

“In the summer of 541 AD a deadly infectious disease broke out in the Egyptian port city of Pelusium, located on the eastern edge of the Nile delta.  It quickly spread eastward along the coast of Gaza and westward to Alexandria.  By the following spring it had found its way to Constantinople, capital of the Roman Empire.  Syria, Anatolia, Greece, Italy, Gaul, Iberia and North Africa: none of the lands bordering the Mediterranean escaped it.  Here and there, if followed river valleys or overland routes and thus penetrated far into the interior, reaching, for example, as far east as Persia or as far north, after another sea-crossing, as the British Isles.

 

The disease remained virulent in these lands for slightly more than two centuries, although it never settled anywhere for long.  Instead, it came and went, and as is frequently the case with unwelcome visitors, its appearances were unannounced.  Overall, there was not a decade in the course of two centuries when it was not inflicting death somewhere in the Mediterranean region.  In those places where it appeared several times, the intervals between recurrences ranged from about six to twenty years.  And then, in the middle of the eight century, it vanished with as little ceremony as when it first arrived.

 

Thus did bubonic plague make its first appearance on the world historical scene.  Diagnosis of historical illnesses on the basis of descriptions in ancient texts can rarely be made with compelling certainty because all infectious diseases involve fever and the other symptoms tend not to be exclusive to particular diseases.  Plague, however, is a major exception because of the unmistakable appearance of buboes on most of its victims, those painful swellings of the lymph nodes that appear in the groin, in the armpit, or on the neck just below the ear.  Taken together, the dozens of epidemics of this disease that broke out throughout the Mediterranean basin and its hinterlands between the mid-500’s and mid-700’s constitute the first historically documented pandemic of plague, the first of three.

 

…  The lawyer Agathias undertook to continue the history of Procopius.  He says that after 544 when plague ceased in Constantinople, it had never really stopped but simply moved on from place to place, until it returned to the city almost as though it had been cheated on the first occasion into a needlessly hasty departure.  This was the spring of 558, when “a second outbreak of plague swept the capital, destroying a vast number of people.” The form the epidemic took was not unlike that of the earlier outbreak.  A swelling in the glands in the groin was accompanied by a high fever that raged night and day with unabated intensity and never left its victim until the moment of death.  Another testimony in Greek came from the Antiochene lawyer Evagrius “Scholasticus.” Plague broke out in 594 while he was at work on his Ecclesiastical History, and in a passage of that book he notes that this was the fourth episode of the plague in his experience, going back to 542 when the disease first arrived in Antioch and he himself, then six years old, suffered from its fevers and swellings.  In each of the later outbreaks he lost servants and family members, including most recently a daughter and a grandson.  We need emphasize that all three of these leading Greek sources, Procopius, Agathias, and Evagrius, were knowledgeable about earlier epidemics, yet clearly stressed the dreadful newness of the epidemics that started in 542.”

 

Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750

Lester K. Little

Cambridge University Press, 2007

Introduction on page 3

Last paragraph = page 9

 

 

 

 

“During (Justinian’s) rule over the Romans, many disasters of various kinds occurred: which some said were due to the presence and artifices of the Devil, and others considered were effected by the Divinity, Who, disgusted with the Roman Empire, had turned away from it and given the country up to the Old One. The Scirtus River flooded Edessa, creating countless sufferings among the inhabitants, as I have elsewhere written.  The Nile, rising as usual, but not subsiding in the customary season, brought terrible calamities to the people there, as I have also previously recounted.  The Cydnus inundated Tarsus, covering almost the whole city for many days, and did not subside until it had done irreparable damage.

 

Earthquakes destroyed Antioch, the leading city of the East; Seleucia, which is situated nearby; and Anazarbus, most renowned city in Cilicia. Who could number those that perished in these metropoles? Yet one must add also those who lived in Ibora; in Amasea, the chief city of Pontus; in Polybotus in Phrygia, called Polymede by the Pisidians; in Lychnidus in Epirus; and in Corinth: all thickly inhabited cities from of old.  All of these were destroyed by earthquakes during this time, with a loss of almost all their inhabitants. And then came the plague, which I have previously mentioned, killing half at least of those who had survived the earthquakes.  To so many men came their doom, when Justinian first came to direct the Roman state and later possessed the throne of autocracy.”

 

 

“The nature of the third levy was briefly as follows: Many losses, especially at this time, were suffered by the cities, whose causes and extents I refrain from describing now, or the tale would be endless. These losses the landowners had to repair, by special assessment on each individual; and their troubles did not even stop there. The pestilence, which had attacked the inhabited world, did not spare the Roman Empire. Most of its farmers had perished of it, so that their lands were deserted; nevertheless Justinian did not exempt the owners of these properties. Their annual taxes were not remitted, and they had to pay not only their own, but their deceased neighbours’ share. And in addition to all of this, these land-poor wretches had to quarter the soldiers in their best rooms, while they themselves during this time existed in the meanest and poorest part of their dwellings.”

 

Procopius

A Secret History

translated by Richard Atwater

Chicago: P. Covici, 1927; New York: Covici Friede, 1927

reprinted @ Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1961

 

The earthquakes mentioned seem to be the ones in 525!

(same cities mentioned)

Justinian began to rule in 527!

Procopius must have been putting blame on Justinian for earthquakes 2 years prior to his rule.

Why would he be to blame for earthquakes in the first place?  Sheesh!

 

The line “and then came the plague” is a 16-year “then

Earthquakes = 525

Plague = 541

 

 

 

541

 

“It has come to my ears that during the meetings at which Silla and Imna concerted their plans, there were manifested portents of trees and serpents.  This is notorious to everybody.  Now (ill) luck sent by the Powers of Evil is for the sake of making people correct their conduct; natural catastrophes are given for men’s instruction.  It is just in this way that Bright Heaven communicates to us as a lesson tokens of the former spirits.  When misfortune has reached a climax, one may have remorse; when ruin has come, one may think of establishing himself again, but what avails it?”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 46

 

 

 

540-570

(563-594 minus ~25)?

 

“Important glacial ice-core evidence comes from the mountain fastness of western South America.  The 18,700-foot-high Quelccaya glacier – a vast ‘carpet’ of ice on top of part of the central Andes – has provided scientists with data which suggests that drought-induced dust storms were raging in Peru from around 540 to around 570.

 

Scientists from Ohio State University climbed to the top of the glacier in 1983 and, using solar power, sank a drill deep into the ice.  With the equipment they succeeded in extracting two roughly 530-foot-long ice-cores, the water from which was then studied in detail under laboratory conditions.  The raw data showed that the ice, between 563 and 594 (- 25 years), was riddled with drought-induced dust, suggesting a 30-year long drought – the most sudden and intense in Andean and possibly South American history.

 

But glacial ice-cores are often inaccurate in terms of chronology especially at substantial time depth.  Compression of the ice can lead to some layers (perhaps as much as one or two years per century) not being counted.  Up to 25 years can potentially therefore be added to the (time since) the drought, thus pushing it back to 530 or 540.  Significantly, the abrupt cooling revealed by Chilean and Argentine tree rings can be precisely dated to exactly 540.  It is therefore possible that the Peruvian ice-core dust and the Chilean and Argentinian cooling are both manifestations of the same sixth-century climatic catastrophe.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 356, 357

 

 

 

The last monumental structure built at Teotihuacan, was the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (dated to around 300 AD), with 260 people sacrificed and buried under the temple, the largest such sacrifice in the city:

      

Description: Spooky feathered serpent at Teotihuacan 

 

 

 

 

“Up until three years ago (late 1990’s), the virtual depopulation and demise of this vast ancient city was believed to have taken place in the eighth century AD, but a recent total reassessment of the evidence has now led archaeologists to re-date the collapse to 150 years earlier – to the sixth century AD!

 

Academics have re-dated the end of Teotihuacan as a result of recent ceramic studies, supported by some radio-carbon dates (usually plus or minus 50 years or so), and to a much lesser extent by some dates produced by an even less exact system known as obsidian hydration dating.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 274, 445

 

citing:

Dating results from Excavations in Quarry Tunnels Behind the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan

Ancient Mesoamerica, number 7, Autumn, 1996

Linda Manzanilla, Claudia Lopez, AnnCorinne Freter

 

 

 

“In 536 AD, there was a moment of sudden environmental change in the basin of Mexico.  Exciting new research suggests that this could have been a key factor in pushing the Teotihuacano to the brink of disaster.  It was the biggest volcanic eruption ever recorded in Central America.

 

The Ilopango volcano was in modern-day El Salvador.  Even though it was almost 800 miles away, the ash and gas that spewed out from the eruption clouded the skies over Teotihuacan.  With no heat and light from the sun, the crops failed repeatedly, which had grave consequences for their leaders.

 

In the middle of the 6th century AD, the people of Teotihuacan rose up.  They targeted the symbolic heart of the city and set it alight.  David Carballo, was part of the team that retrieved charred remains of the wooden temple structures that lined the avenue of the dead.  Burnt roof-structures give a sense of the drama, of like, things on fire, ending in quite a dramatic way, do you think that’s true?

 

“Certainly for the central part of the city.  It seems like very selective concerted burning within temples and palace complexes all around the street of the dead.”

 

That whole street, then, would have been on fire at the same time, you imagine.

 

“Perhaps, yes, it seems like a planned burning event.  It was a symbolic termination of the civic architecture, basically.

 

We have to consider Teotihuacan as a successful state, in that it survived for 5 to 6 centuries, as possibly the largest place in the Americas, and one of the largest cities.  But, there certainly were some challenges in the 6th century, that the governing apparatus seems to not have been able to overcome.  What exactly it was that it couldn’t evolve to, is still a question to be answered.”

 

A population of 100,000 eventually dwindled to 20,000 people.  It would take hundreds of years for the significance of this city to be rediscovered, by another great civilization, when the Aztecs discovered this vast abandoned city.  They believed it could only have been the work of giants, even gods.  When they arrived, it had no name.  They called it Teotihuacan, The Place when Time Began.”

 

Lost Kingdoms Of Central America

episode 4: Teotihuacan: The Place Where Time Began

BBC 2014

Jago Cooper interviewing David M. Carballo:

Associate Professor of Archaeology, Anthropology, and Latin American Studies

@ Boston University

 

 

 

“The placid Lake Ilopango is the caldera of the Ilopango volcanic complex, which in 539 or 540 A.D. produced one of the largest volcanic eruptions in the last 7,000 years.  The lake was also present then; as lava boiled the water into steam, the eruption became even more explosive.

 

The eruption devastated local Maya settlements and caused crop failures around the world.

 

The ices of Greenland and Antarctica bear the fingerprints of a monster: a gigantic volcanic eruption in 539 or 540 A.D.  that killed tens of thousands and helped trigger one of the worst periods of global cooling in the last 2,000 years.  Now, after years of searching, a team of scientists has finally tracked down the source of the eruption.

 

The team’s work, published in Quaternary Science Reviews, lays out new evidence that ties the natural disaster to Ilopango, a now-dormant volcano in El Salvador.  Researchers estimate that in its sixth-century eruption, Ilopango expelled the equivalent of 10.5 cubic miles of dense rock, making it one of the biggest volcanic events on Earth in the last 7,000 years.  The blast was more than a hundred times bigger than the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption and several times larger than the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo.  It dealt the local Maya settlements a blow that forever altered their trajectory.

 

“This is the largest eruption in Central America that human beings have ever witnessed,” says lead study author Robert Dull, a geologist at California Lutheran University.  “The importance of the event is even greater, both how the Maya overcame it and how it impacted what happened next.”

 

The new work helps solve a longtime geologic mystery.  Historical accounts that date to 536 describe a dark fog that dimmed the sun and ushered in a wave of crop deaths.  Until recently, scholars were open to the idea that these clouds were the remains of an asteroid or comet.  But modern data confirms that the event was volcanic—and that it was two volcanoes up to four years apart, not just one.”

 

Colossal volcano behind 'mystery' global cooling finally found

Michael Greshko

National Geographic's science desk

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/08/colossal-volcano-behind-mystery-global-cooling-found/

 

 

 

 

542

 

 [The Marib Dam, in Yemen] “… was not one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World – but it probably should have been.  It was one of the largest and most spectacular feats of civil engineering achieved by humanity in pre-modern times.  The main dam was 53 feet high, 2046 feet long and at least 200 feet wide at the base.  Its main job was to concentrate flood waters so that they reached a particular height and could be channelled through two main sluices into a 3700-foot-long canal and thence through 15 secondary sluices and 121 tertiary sluices into a massive irrigation system consisting of hundreds of miles of canals.  In total, the complex irrigated 24000 acres and supported a population of between 30,000 and 50,000 people.

 

…  The world-wide climatic chaos of the mid to late 530’s, 540’s, and 550’s seems to have produced not only drought but occasional rain storms of extreme severity.  One of these freak deluges produced such massive quantities of water that, some time in the 540’s, the great Marib Dam gave way for the first time in 100 years.

 

The event was recorded in a royal inscription, and a workforce from all over Yemen had to be raised to repair it, so serious was the damage.  Archaeological work at the site suggests that the force of the flood was unprecedented.  Certainly the authorities took unprecedented measures to try to stop it happening again.  For the first time ever, large blocks of stone were used to reinforce the dam.

 

For the ten years following the 540’s dam-burst, geomorphological investigations at the dam have revealed what appears to have been a massively increased level of silt deposition.  In one part of the basin sediment levels rose 30 feet in a decade.  Although parts of the basin concerned are different and therefore not fully comparable, it is by contrast striking that in the 100 or so years between a breaking of the dam in c. 450 and the breakage in the 540’s, only 16 feet of silts were deposited; and indeed in the previous 90 years (before 450) just 23 feet (of sediment) had been laid down.

 

Other irrigation systems in Yemen may also have been damaged or abandoned at roughly the same time.  In the Wadi Markhah in central Yemen, (Swiss scholar Ueli Brunner) had identified, since 1992, at least half a dozen settlements, including four small towns which appear to have become deserted in the 500’s or 600’s.  Abandonment is even recorded in Arab tradition, which maintains that many people left Wadi Markhah to take part in the early Islamic expansion.  One group that, according to local tradition, did not leave are still known today as the al-Nisiyin – the forgotten people.  Another area, Wadi Jawi in northern Yemen, has at least a dozen deserted settlements, most of which were also probably abandoned in the 500’s or 600’s.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 82-83 + chapter note

 

The inscription for the dam-burst in the 540’s is designated CIH541 – King Abraha

 

The work of Ueli Brenner mentioned is from:

Die Erforshung der Antiken Oase von Marib

Mit Hilse Geomorphologischen

unter Suchungs Methoden

(volume 2 of Archaeologische Berichte aus Dem Yemen)

published by Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, in 1983

 

 

Here is an excerpt from this, the most major report of the Marib Dam failure, dated to 542:

 

 

 

“With the power, the aid, and the mercy of Raḥmann, of his Messiah and of the Holy Spirit.

 

… The appeal to come to the aid of Saba’ reached him [Abraha, the King] when the dam, the anchoring wall and the sluice gates of the large water distribution system (?) were destroyed….

 

… Then the king sent a summons to the tribes to seal up [the breaches], collect earth, make the facing in dressed stones, to construct in masonry, make a facing in trimmed polished stone (?) apply the plaster, restore to a sound state the dam, the anchoring wall and the damage that had been done at Marib.

 

He fixed a rendezvous with them for the month ḏ-Ṣrbn of the year seven. After he had sent out the summons and the bedouins submitted themselves, he returned to the city of Marib and celebrated Mass in the church of the Marib because there was a priest there, the father of the community (?).  From there he took charge of the dam and dug until he reached bedrock and excavated the rock to put in the foundations of the anchoring wall. After they had laid the foundations of the anchoring wall the plague arrived among the tribes and in the city.

 

… After the plague had subsided thanks to Raḥmann, the tribes descended in accordance with his first summons which he had made at their second rendezvous. The tribes arrived during the last ḏ-Dʾwn.  After the tribes had sent him their wheat, they repaired what had been destroyed of the anchoring wall… … He disbursed from the day in which he took charge of this task until the celebration of the Mass in the church (the setting to rights of the) anchoring wall and of the dam, fifty thousand eight hundred and six (?) (measures) of flour, twenty-six thousand (measures) of dates in measures of Ydʿʾl; the meat of three thousand heads of cattle and cows, seven thousand two hundred heads of small cattle, three hundred camel (loads) of drink (of date wine (?), of wine made of raisins (?)) eleven thousand measures (amphoras ?) of date wine (?). He had completed his work in fifty- eight days and he returned after eleven months.”

 

Corpus Of Late Sabaic Inscriptions

Digital Archive for the Study of Pre-Islamic Arabian Inscriptions

CIH 541 Sadd Maʾrib 5

 

 

 

538 or 544

 

“In the year when Ciaran the son of the Carpenter died, the same year when Tuathal Maelgariv was killed and the year when Diarmait the son of Cerrbel became King of all Ireland, the year 538 of our era in short [or possibly 544], it happened that there was a great gathering of the men of Ireland at the Hill of Uisneach in Royal Meath.

 

In addition to the Council which was being held, there were games and tournaments and brilliant deployments of troops, and universal feastings and enjoyments. The gathering lasted for a week, and on the last day of the week Mongan was moving through the crowd with seven guards, his story-teller Cairidè, and his wife.

 

It had been a beautiful day, with brilliant sunshine and great sport, but suddenly clouds began to gather in the sky to the west, and others came rushing blackly from the east. When these clouds met the world went dark for a space, and there fell from the sky a shower of hailstones, so large that each man wondered at their size, and so swift and heavy that the women and young people of the host screamed from the pain of the blows they received.

 

Mongan's men made a roof of their shields, and the hailstones battered on the shields so terribly that even under them they were afraid. They began to move away from the host looking for shelter, and when they had gone apart a little way they turned the edge of a small hill and a knoll of trees, and in the twinkling of an eye they were in fair weather.

 

One minute they heard the clashing and bashing of the hailstones, the howling of the venomous wind, the screams of women and the uproar of the crowd on the Hill of Uisnach, and the next minute they heard nothing more of those sounds and saw nothing more of these sights, for they had been permitted to go at one step out of the world of men and into the world of Faery.”

 

Irish Fairy Tales

James Stephens

MaCmillan, London, 1920

“Mongan’s Frenzy” – Chapter 3

 

Sourced from:

The Celtic Gods

Comets in Irish Mythology

Patrick McCafferty and Mike Baillie

Tempus, 2005

page 167

(much more information in their chapter on Mongan)

 

 

 

545

 22nd October

 

“During the siege of Yu-pi (probably Pi-tcheou in Sse-tchouen), a star fell in the camp of the besiegers.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

547

 

“In the first year of the T'ai Ts'ing era (547 A.  D.) there was again a dragon fight in the waters of Li cheu.  The waves seethed and bubbled up, and clouds and fog assembled from all sides.  White dragons were seen running to the South, followed by black dragons.  That year Heu King came with troops to submit, and the Emperor accepted his submission without taking precautions.  The people of the realm were all frightened, and suddenly rebellion arose.  The Emperor in consequence thereof had a sad death".

 

“He died in 549, and eight years later the Liang dynasty came to an end.”

 

The Dragon in China and Japan

pages 46-47

 

Citing the Books of the Sui dynasty

 

Sourced from:

Exodus to Arthur

Catastrophic Encounters with Comets

Mike Baillie, 1999

 

 

 

548/549

 

“In this year there was much terrifying thunder and lightning, so that many were struck by lightning while they slept. On St John's day the thunder and lightning were so terrible that part of the column of the Xerolophos was sliced off, as was the carved capital of the same column.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

549

 

“There appeared a shooting star 300 feet long; she fell in the place of Wou (Wou-kiun).”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

548-550

 

“In the northern-Chinese Bei Shi, a major drought is cited for 548, while The History of the Southern Dynasties records extremely serious droughts and subsequent famines in 549 and 550, in which the population was literally reduced to cannibalism in some areas.  The accounts say that in the famine of 549 when corpses must have been plentiful ‘people ate each other’ in the great city of Jiujiang (now Jiangzhou) on the south bank of the Yangtze; and in 550 ‘from spring until summer there was a great drought, people ate one another and in the capital [modern Nanjing] it was especially serious’.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

page 221

 

 

 

~550

 

“Until now, historians have come to believe that the end of the Gupta Empire, which reigned over what is now called India’s Golden Age from around AD 300 till about AD 550, was caused by socio-economic factors.  The decline of the Guptas also severely impacted a flourishing Buddhism, relegating it to the background for several centuries in the country.

 

Archaeologist Shanker Sharma has now provided evidence to show that almost every significant archaeological site in Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh reveals silt deposits ranging from 0.6 meters to 2.5 meters, suggesting that the area was hit by disastrous floods.  Balirajgarh (Madhubani), Kolhua, Raja Vishal Ka Garh and Chechar (Vaishali), Titra (Siwan), Chirand (Saran), Panr (Samastipur), Kumhrar (Patna), Champa (Bhagalpur), Kushinagar and Siddharthnagar (both in Uttar Pradesh) are some of such sites.

 

“My research picked up pace after I visited Balirajgarh in Madhubani district, a site that has been partially excavated so far by the ASI in 2014.  The site had a 7-metre-high fortification without any gap and people in the ancient times accessed it through a ramp.  To my surprise, silt had crossed such high ramparts and around 1.7 meters of it was deposited inside.  Just imagine how high the floods would have been to cause it and what would have happened to human settlements outside the fortification,” Sharma told The Telegraph.

 

Similarly, the Kolhua stupa site in Vaishali district shows silt deposits of 1 meter to 1.5 meters, while the Chaumukhi Mahadev site in the same district had silt deposits of 2.5 meters.  Panr site in Samastipur had a deposit of over 1 meter.  There is evidence of high silt deposits at Kumhrar site in Patna too.

 

There was no cultural occupation (proper civilization) at the sites for several hundred years after.  The populated areas were deserted.  The growth achieved in the second urbanization that had started in this region around 600 BC, centuries after the first urbanization brought by the Harappan civilization, was completely lost,” Sharma said.

 

The archaeologist also asserted that the deluge dealt “a death blow to the Gupta Empire” that gathered its strength from Bihar region and ruled over a vast stretch from eastern India to northern and western India.

 

Explaining the sudden decline of Buddhism around that time, Sharma said none of the Buddhist sites such as Kesaria, Lauria Nandangarh, Rampurva, Lauria Areraj and others survived the devastating flood.”

 

 Deluge drowned mighty Guptas: Study

The Telegraph. Kolkota

24 Feb 2019

https://www.telegraphindia.com/india/deluge-drowned-mighty-guptas-study/cid/1685500

 

 

 

 

 

 

552

 

“Enoshima Island is located in Sagami Bay, which is bounded by the Miura Peninsula on the east and the Izu Peninsula on the west. Four (tectonic) plates meet in this area: the Philippines plate, the Eurasian plate, the North American plate and the Pacific plate. This is one of the most seismically active areas on earth, and earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common.”

 

A Study of the Enoshima Engi

Robert A. Juhl

Careful translation and extensive notes

https://sites.google.com/site/bemsha10/setting

 

 

 

A Japanese monk, Kokei, writing in 1047, concerning records compiled in 712 and 720, of spectacular and dreadful wonders beheld at and around the area of Enoshima Island, culminating in the event of 552:

      

“The island of Enoshima, which is part of the land of Sagami of the Tokaido (Eastern Sea Route) district of Great Japan, was created by deities of the eight classes.  This island is sacred to the goddess Benzaiten.

 

A careful investigation into the antecedents of Enoshima island, reveals that there once was a large lake, with a perimeter of 40 li  (~14-23 km), lying between Kamakura and Umitsuki county on the borders between the three lands of Boshu, Musashi, and Sagami.  The lake was called Fukasawa (“deep swamp”). 

 

The surrounding hills were reflected in the billowing waters of this body of water.  Clouds and mist filled the valleys and wolf-dogs roamed the hills.  When a person happened to appear at the lake, dank breezes brushed the treetops and white wolves howled on its banks.  Therefore, signs of human presence were absent at its shores.

 

A fierce, evil dragon, a dragon-king with five heads on one body, frequently made this lake its lair.  This dragon had a prominent snout, whiskers on its chin, its eyes emitted piercing rays like the sun at daybreak, and its torso was surrounded by black clouds.

 

During the seven-hundred-year period from the time of the Emperor Jinmu (traditional dates 660-585 BC) to the time of Emperor Suinin (29 BC-70 AD), the evil dragon, accompanied by the spirit of the wind, demons, mountain spirits, and other spirits, wreaked calamities throughout the land.  Mountains and hills crumbled, releasing floods and causing damage resulting in plagues and revolts.

 

During the 60-year reign of Emperor Keikou (71-130 AD), the 12th emperor, the evil dragon constantly made fire [or torrential rains] and rain descend on the eastern lands [roughly today's Kanto region].  Consequently, the people made their homes in stone caves.

[An alternate version of this same bit:

At the time of Emperor Keikou (71-130 AD), the evils caused by the dragon increased.  Hailstones fell, killing people.  At the time, many people had to hide in stone caverns.  It is related that in winter they lived in holes and in summer in trees, like the way people lived in the most ancient times.

 

At the time of the Emperor Anko (453-456 AD), the 21st emperor, the dragon and its demons relied on Minister En to cause troubles.  At the time of the Emperor Buretsu (498-506 AD), the dragon and its demons relied on Minister Kanamura to foment disorder and revolts.

 

At this time, the five-headed dragon first appeared at the water gate of Tsumura Village in the valley of South Hill (the hill south of the lake) and began to devour children.  From that time named this place Hatsukuhisawa ("Swamp Where the Dragon First Began to Devour People") and called the steep hills to the west Eno.  This swamp was the water gate to the waters of the lake and an estuary of the Southern Sea [Sagami Bay].

 

A village elder lived at the base of the valley.  He had 16 children, all of whom were swallowed by the poisonous dragon.  Grieving and anguishing, he left his old home to move to a location to the west, which was then called "Elder's Mound."

 

The evil dragon then spread out through the villages, swallowing and devouring children.  Terrified, the villagers forsook their homes to move elsewhere.  The people of that time named the new location Koshigoe.

 

By this time the dragon's swallowing of people had taken place throughout the eight lands [of the Kanto region in Eastern Japan].  Children whose parents had been swallowed grieved, and parents whose children had been swallowed lamented.  The sounds of weeping and wailing continued without ceasing throughout the villages.  Children were left without mothers and husbands without wives.

 

Thereupon, the people of the eight lands, high-born and low-born, came together to discuss what to do.  It was decided to offer a [female] child in sacrifice to the dragon.  The wailing and lamentations of the people, high-born and low-born, continued without ceasing.

 

 

In the 13th year (552 A.D.  by traditional dating) of the reign of Emperor Kinmei, dark clouds covered the sea at the watergate (entrance) to the lake from the estuary of the Southern Sea (Sagami Bay) at Eno.  The clouds lasted from around 8:00 pm of the 12th day to 8:00 am of the 23rd day of the fourth month.  Large earthquakes shook the earth day and night.

 

Then the goddess appeared above the clouds, with servants at her left and right.  The myriad spirits — dragon-spirits, the spirits of water, fire, thunder, and lightning, as well as mountain spirits, ghosts, spirits of the dead, and demons — made great boulders descend from above the clouds and rocks and sand spurt up from the bottom of the sea.  Lightning bolts flashed, and flames flickered amidst the white-tipped waves.

 

On the 23rd day of the month at the hour of the dragon (around 8:00 am) the clouds disappeared, the haze dispersed, and an island was seen to have emerged in the sea amidst the blue waves — a new mount made by the spirits.

 

Twelve cormorants descended to perch on the island.  This is why it then was also dubbed "Island to Which Cormorants Come".

 

Displaying her exquisite, brilliant charms, the goddess descended into the Golden Grotto.  It was none other than Benzaiten, the third daughter of the dragon-king of Munetsuchi, manifesting herself in the flesh.

An alternate version of this same bit:

Manifesting herself in the flesh, the goddess, the third daughter of the benevolent dragon-king of Munetsuchi, the elder sister of Lord Enma (also Yama), ruler of Hades, the younger sister of [Dragon-]King Baso, descended upon that island.  Adorned with a long jade pendant and a blood-red ornament, and making a strumming [or slapping] sound, she shined like the autumn moon enveloped in mist and sparkled like spring flowers dripping with dew.

 

Upon seeing the charms of the heavenly goddess, the five-headed dragon of the lake wanted to tell her of his deepest desire.  Riding the waves, he came to the island and sought to tell her of his love.

 

The goddess replied, "I have made a pledge of compassion and pity [for all creatures].  But you mercilessly and rapaciously end their lives.  In body and heart we are complete opposites.  And that is all the more reason that your desire makes no sense!"

 

The dragon spoke, "I will follow your teachings.  From now on, I will refrain forever from harboring a heart set on destruction and from harming living beings.  Instead, I ask you to make me compassionate, able to follow and carry out your will."

 

The goddess then consented.  Thereupon, the dragon pledged to follow her teachings and faced south, becoming a large hill.  The people of that time named the hill "Tatsu-no-kuchi-yama" (Dragon's Mouth Hill).  It was also called "Benevolent Spirit-Guardian of the Dead Children." 

 

This is the island transformed and created by the goddess Benzaiten, using her expedient powers [to lead beings to the truth] in order to save sentient beings from the savagery and evil of the dragon.  As a goddess who manifested herself as a savior, she is thus known as the beneficial spirit enshrined at Enoshima.”

 

A Study of the Enoshima Engi

Robert A. Juhl

Careful translation and extensive notes

https://sites.google.com/site/bemsha10

 

 

 

552

 10th Month

 

“A pestilence was rife in the Land, from which the people died prematurely.  As time went on it became worse and worse, and there was no remedy.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 67

 

 

552

 Around December

 

“A star fell in Ou-kiun, capital of the province of Ou (Sou-tcheou-fou).”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

553

 

"A terrifying earthquake occurred in the towns of Milan and the surrounding area."

 

Annals of Magdeburg

 

 

 

553

 

“The last inscription that mentions the great Marib dam is … … dated in the year 668 of the Himyarite era (= 553 A.D.).  The authors of the text were again engaged, under great exertion, in removing the mud deposits at the dam.”

 

The Encyclopedia of Islam

Volume 6, fascicules 107-108

Pages 563-564

 

Corpus Of Late Sabaic Inscriptions

Digital Archive for the Study of Pre-Islamic Arabian Inscriptions

Ja 547+Ja 546+Ja 544+Ja 545 Sadd Maʾrib 6

 

 

 

553

 

“In A. D. 553 a dragon was seen ascending near the Imperial Palace, and the next year a huge black serpent rose from the Palace moat to the sky, spreading a dazzling light and followed by a small snake.  Calamity was predicted on account of these apparitions, and the Emperor tried to avert the evil by offerings of moneys, magic, Buddhist prayers and philanthropy; but it was all in vain, for at the end of the same year he was killed.”

 

The Dragon in China and Japan

page 53

 

 

 

553

 5th Month, 7th Day

 

“The following report was received at Chinu, in the district of Idzumi, there is heard a voice of Buddhist chants, which re-echoes like the sound of thunder, and a glory shines like the radiance of the sun.  In his heart the Emperor wondered at this, and sent Unate no Atahe to go upon the sea to investigate the matter.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 68

 

 

 

553

 

“Brenainn of Birra was seen ascending in a chariot into the sky this year.”

 

Annals of the Four Masters

 

 

 

553

 

“A pestilence i.e. leprosy called the sámthrosc.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

554?

 

“A pestilence called the samthrosc.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

This annal dates the mortality in Chron Chonaill in 551, 3 years earlier, so this event here might be 3 years later, in 557.

But, the annals of Ulster has this in 553…

 

 

 

554

 Around November

 

“While imperial troops of Tcheou were besieging Kiang-ling (actually King-tcheou-fou in Hou-kouang), a star fell in the city.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

555

 

“A great mortality this year, i.e. in chron Chonaill (in buide Chonaill).”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

556

 

“Fire appeared in the sky in the shape of a spear, from north to west.  On Monday 16 April, there was a frightening earthquake that caused no damage.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

556

 

The twelve books of the Syriac chronicle of Zachariah of Mitylene are complete up to book 9, which covers events up to 536 AD.  After this, the works are fragmentary.  From book 12, set 20 years after 536, chapter 5, entitled The Fifth Chapter Treats Of The Powder, Consisting Of Ashes, Which Fell From Heaven:

 

“In addition to all the evil and fearful things described above and recorded below, the earthquakes and famines and wars in divers places, and the abundance of iniquity and the deficiency of love and faith, which have happened and are happening, there has also been fulfilled against us and against this last generation the curse of Moses in Deuteronomy, when he admonished the people who had come out of Egypt, when they were just about to enter the land of promise, and said to them, "If thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God, and wilt not observe and do all His statutes and His commandments, which I command thee this day, all these curses shall come upon thee and overtake thee";  and a little further on he speaks thus: "The Lord shall give for the rain of thy land powder; and dust from heaven shall He send down upon thee, until He destroy thee.  And He shall smite thee before thine enemies; and thy carcass shall be meat unto the fowls of heaven and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be no man to fray them away." 

 

Such fearful things and more fearful things are coming; for in the year four, on the first Sabbath, which is the Sabbath before the feast of unleavened bread, the heavens above us were covered with stormy (?) clouds, brought by the east winds, and instead of the usual rain and moistening water dropped upon the earth a powder composed of ashes and dust by the commandment of God.  And it showed itself upon stones and fell upon walls; and discerning men were in fear and trepidation and anxiety, and instead of the joy of the Passover they were in sorrow, because all the things that are written had been fulfilled against us on account of our sins.  Now it was the twenty-eighth year of this king.”

 

The Syriac Chronicle known as that of Zachariah of Mitylene

Book 12, chapter 5

 

 

 

557

 

“In this year, on Friday 19 October of the 6th indiction there was a great earthquake, just as Saturday was dawning.  On 14 December, there was another very frightening earthquake, which damaged the two walls of Constantinople, both the Constantinian and the one built by Theodosios.  In particular, there collapsed churches and the area beyond the Hebdomon, namely St Samuel, the Holy Mother of God of Petalas, St Vincent, and many church altars and ciboria between the Golden Gate and Rhesion. 

 

There was no place or suburban estate which did not suffer damage from the terrible threat of the earthquake. 

 

Rhegion suffered so badly that it was unrecognizable.  The churches of St Stratonikos and of St Kallinikos, both in Rhegion, collapsed to the ground.  The porphyry column, which stood in front of the palace of Iucundianae with the statue on top of it, collapsed and was driven eight feet into the ground.  The statue of the emperor, Arkadios, which stood to the left of the arch of the Tauros, also fell.

 

There were many casualties in the collapsed buildings, though some were rescued even two or three days after they had been trapped in the ruins.

 

It was reported that the same thing had happened in other cities.

 

No man in that generation on earth could remember so great and terrible an earthquake.  For the love of man the earth continued to shake by day and night for ten days, and for a while men went on litanies out of contrition, but after experiencing God's love, they lapsed again to worse habits.

 

The emperor did not wear his crown for forty days, and even on the holy birth of Christ he processed to church without it.  He also stopped the customary luncheons in the hall of the Nineteen Couches and gave the money saved from this to the poor. 

 

In February a bubonic plague broke out, particularly among the young, so that the living were too few to bury the dead.  The plague raged from February till July.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

558

 

“There was a great running of stars from evening until morning, so that everyone was greatly terrified, and exclaimed: “the stars are falling.’”

 

Historiarum Compendium

Georgii Cedreni

Hist. Byz. Sc. Corp. tom. 7, p. 304.

 

Cited in Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

pages 353-355

 

 

 

560

  October 4

 

“A comet was seen.  It was 4 cubits in length.  The tail pointed to the south-west.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 34

 

 

 

561

  September 26

 

“An extraordinary star was seen in S. D. Yih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 36

 

“S. D. Yih determined by a and others in Crater.”

 

 

 

563 - October

 

“In October of this year, a riot among the people occurred in the quarter of Pittakia, and the emperor punished a great many.  In November there was a drought and water became scarce, resulting in many fights around the fountains.  (Since) August a north wind had blown and none from the south. Ships could not reach Constantinople so Eutychios, the patriarch, ordered a litany to [the quarter of) Jerusalem, that is to St Diomedes.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

563 - October

Lake Geneva:

 

“Now a great prodigy appeared in the Gauls at the town of Tauredunum, situated on the river Rhone.  After a sort of rumbling had continued for more than sixty days, the mountain was finally torn away and separated from another mountain near it, together with men, churches, property and houses, and fell into the river, and the banks of the river were blocked and the water flowed back.  For that place was shut in on either side by mountains and the torrent flowed in a narrow way.  It overflowed above and engulfed and destroyed all that was on the bank.  Then the gathered water burst its way downstream and took men by surprise, as it had above, and caused a loss of life, overturned houses, destroyed beasts of burden, and overwhelmed with a sudden and violent flood all that was on the banks as far as the city of Geneva.  It is told by many that the mass of water was so great that it went over the walls into the city mentioned.  And there is no doubt of this tale because as we have said the Rhone flows in that region between mountains that hem it in closely, and being so closely shut in, it has no place to turn aside.  It carried away the fragments of the mountain that had fallen and thus caused it to disappear wholly.  And after this thirty monks came to the place where the town fell in ruins and began to dig in the ground which remained when the mountain had fallen, trying to find bronze and iron.  And while engaged in this they heard a rumbling of the mountain like the former one.  And while they were kept there by their greed, the part of the mountain which had not yet fallen fell on them and covered and destroyed them and none of them was found.

 

In like manner too before the plague at Clermont great prodigies terrified that region.  For three or four great shining places frequently appeared about the sun and the rustics used to call them suns, saying: "Behold, three or four suns in the sky." (sun-dogs)  Once on the first of October [October 3, 563] the sun was so darkened that not a quarter of it continued bright, but it looked hideous and discoloured, about like a sack.  Moreover a star which certain call a comet, with a ray like a sword, appeared over that country through a whole year, and the sky seemed to be on fire and many other signs were seen.

 

… And presently the plague came, and such a carnage of the people took place through the whole district that the legions that fell could not be counted.  For when sepulchres and gravestones failed, ten or more would be buried in a single trench.  Three hundred dead bodies were counted one Sunday in the church of the blessed Peter alone.  Death was sudden.  A wound the shape of a serpent would appear on groin or armpit and the man would be so overcome by the poison as to die on the second or third day.  Moreover the power of the poison rendered the victim insensible.  At that time Cato the priest died.  For when many had fled from the plague he never left the place, but remained courageously burying the people and celebrating mass.  He was a priest of great kindliness and a warm friend of the poor.  And if he had some pride, thus virtue I think counterbalanced it.  But the bishop Cautinus, after running from place to place in fear of this plague, returned to the city, caught it and died on the day before Passion Sunday.  At that very hour too, Tetradius his cousin died.  At that time Lyons, Bourges, Cahors, and Dijon were seriously depopulated from this plague.”

 

History of the Franks

Gregory of Tours

Book 4, 31

 

 

 

“Most tsunamis occur in the marine realm and are associated with large earthquakes.  However, landlocked communities in regions without mega-earthquakes are not exempt from their destructive effects.  Tsunamis have been recorded in lakes as a result of earthquakes and seismogenic landslides, rockfalls and volcanic flank collapses, but have rarely affected large populations.  Here we present a seismic survey of Lake Geneva along with sediment core analyses suggesting that, in AD 563, a large tsunami caused considerable destruction around the lake.

 

The Lake Geneva region is unlikely to ever experience a truly massive earthquake, nor is the topography near the city of Geneva steep enough to generate destructive wave-generating rockfalls.  Yet, historical accounts report a rockfall in AD 563 — the so-called Tauredunum event — in the mountains more than 70 km from Geneva, where the Rhone River enters the lake.  There are no reports suggesting that the Tauredunum rockfall was triggered by an earthquake (well, except for 60 days of rumbling, no?), but we know that it destroyed several villages and caused a large number of casualties.  Both historical accounts describe how a tsunami, generated in Lake Geneva by the rockfall, inundated everything on the lake shore, devastated villages with their inhabitants and herds of animals, destroyed the Geneva bridge and mills, and entered the city of Geneva — passing over the city walls — and killed several people.

 

Analysis of the seismic profiles shows a giant sediment deposit beneath the lake bed that is characterized by chaotic and transparent seismic facies and an erosive base, which we interpret as a mass movement deposit.  This lens-shaped deposit covers the entire deep lake basin, with a length of over 10 km and width of 5 km, an average thickness of 5 m and an estimated minimum volume of 0.25 km3.  The unit is thickest in the southeast, indicating an origin in the Rhone delta.

 

We have estimated the age of the turbidite (underwater landslide deposit) on the basis of three samples of organic material collected near its top.  Two radiocarbon dates of leaf samples were used to build a linear relationship between sedimentation rate and time.  We derive an interval of AD 381 to 612 with 95% probability.  The third age, obtained from a wood sample embedded within the deposit, gives the earliest possible date for the event as ad 256 to 424 and thus validates the above age model.  Since the ad 563 event is the only significant natural event recorded in historical accounts within our calculated age interval, we consider our dating results to be a strong indication that the deposit is linked to the AD 563 rockfall and tsunami.

 

The event that triggered this tsunami was by no means unique.  Our seismic reflection record indicates that large mass movements were generated several times during the Holocene epoch (since roughly 11,600 years ago), and could also have triggered destructive waves.”

Giant Lake Geneva tsunami in AD 563

Nature Geoscience  October 2012

Katrina Kremer, Guy Simpson, and Stéphanie Girardclos

University of Geneva

 

 

 

565?

  April 21

 

“A comet was seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 35

 

 

 

565

  July 22

 

“A comet appeared in San Tae.  It entered Wan Chang and Shang Tseang.  It afterwards crossed the western boundary of Tsze Kung.  It entered S. D. Wei, and gradually increased to about 10 cubits in length.  It pointed towards S. D. Shih and Peih.  After about 100 days it gradually diminished to about 2 ½ cubits in length.  It arrived at S. D. Heu and Wei, and then disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 36, 37

 

“S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.

Shih determined by a, b Pegasi and stars near.

Peih determined by a Tauri and others near.

Heu determined by b Pegasi and another.

San Tae, feet of Ursa Major.

Wan Chang, q, n, f, &c. Ursæ Majoris.

Shang Tseang, n, &c. in Coma Berenices.

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.

This appears to be the same as No. 161 (July 24 – below) by a different observer, and on another day.”

 

  July 23

 

“There was a comet about 10 cubits in length.  It was seen in Shang Tae.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 34

 

“Shang Tae, i, k Ursæ Majoris.”

 

  July 24

 

“A comet was seen in Wan Chang. Its length was reckoned at 1/10 of a cubit.  It entered Wan Chang.  It passed over Shang Tseang, and afterwards crossed Tsze Wei Kung to its western boundary.  It gradually lengthened to about 10 cubits.  It pointed to S. D. Shih and Peih.  After about 100 days it entered S. D. Heu and Wei, and then disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 35

 

“S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.

Shih determined by a Pegasi and others near.

Peih determined by g Pegasi and a Andromedæ .

Heu determined by b Aquarii and others.

Wan Chang, q, n, f, &c. Ursæ Majoris.

Shang Tseang, stars in Coma Berenices.

Tsze Wei Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

 

 

567

 

“Fiery spears were seen in the air, portending the irruption of the Lombards into Italy.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

567

 

“There were floods in the districts and provinces, with famine.  In some cases men ate each other.  Mutual assistance was rendered by transporting grain from the neighbouring districts.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 87

 

 

 

568

 18th March

 

“A shooting star, as large as a bushel,  … when it extinguished, a noise like thunder was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

568

  July

 

“A comet was seen in S. D. Tsing.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 36

 

“S. D. Tsing, g, e, l, m, &c. Geminorum.”

 

  July 21 – August 19

 

“A comet was seen in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing.  It was 10 cubits in length.  Its colour was white in the upper part and reddish below.  It ended in a point.  It gradually went to the east.  In the 7th moon, day Kwei Maou (August 19), it passed to the north of S. D. Kwei.  It was then 8/10 of a cubit in length.  It afterwards disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 37

 

“S. D. Tsing determined by g, d, l, m, &c. Geminorum.

S. D. Kwei determined by g, d, h, q Cancri.”

 

 

 

568

  August 3

 

“A comet was seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 34

 

 

 

568

  August - October

 

“In the 7th moon of the same year a comet was seen in S. D. Fang and Sin.  It was white like meal, or the refuse of silk, and was as large as a tow measure.  It went to the east.  In the 8th moon (September) it entered Teen She.  It gradually increased in length to 40 cubits.  In shape it resembled a melon.  It passed through S. D. Heu and Wei.  It entered S. D. Shih.  It passed over the Le Kung.  In the 9th moon (October) it entered S. D. Kwei.  It passed on to S. D. Lew, and then disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 36

 

“S. D. Fang determined by b, d, p, r in Scorpio.

Sin determined by a, s, t in Scorpio.

Heu determined by b Aquarii and another.

Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.

Shih determined by a, b Pegasi and others near.

Kwei determined by b, d, e Andromedæ and stars in Pisces.

Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis, &c.

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.

Le Kung, three groups of two stars each in Pegasus : they are l m, h o, n t, and form part of S. D. Shih .”

 

 

Have you ever seen a comet close enough to describe the shape of the nucleus – like a melon?  Melons are large.

Have you ever even heard of anyone else, in your generation, or even in previous generations, ever see a comet so close-up, from earth’s surface?

This was clearly not a normal period, celstially speaking.

 

 

 

574

  April 4 – July 6

 

“A strange star, resembling a large peach, of a bluish-white colour, appeared in Woo Chay, to the south-east.  It was 3 cubits in length.  It went slowly to the east, and whilst there increased to 2 cubits in length.  In the 4th moon, day Jin Shin (May 8), it entered Wan Chang.  On the day Ting Wei (May 23) it entered Kwei in Pih Tow, to about the middle.  It afterwards left Kwei, and gradually became smaller.  It was visible altogether for 93 days.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 37

 

“Kwei in Pih Tow, the middle of the square in Ursa Major.

Wan Chang, q, n, f Ursæ Majoris.”

 

 

 

574

  May 31 – June 9

 

“In the 4th moon, day Yih Maou, there was a comet just without the boundary of Tsze Kung.  It was large, like a man's fist: colour, reddish white.  It pointed to Woo Te Tso.  It went slowly to the south-east.  Its length was 15 cubits.  In the 5th moon, day Kea Tsze (June 9), it went to the north of Shang Tae and disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 37, 38

 

“Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.

Woo Te Tso, b Leonis and small stars near.

Shang Tae, i, k Ursæ Majoris.

In the 'She Ke’ this is placed in the 10th moon.”

 

 

 

575

  April 27

 

“There was a comet near Ta Keo.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 34

 

“Ta Keo, Arcturus.”

 

 

 

577

 

“When we were staying in Paris signs appeared in the sky, namely, twenty rays in the northern part which rose in the east and sped to the west; and one of them was more extended and overtopped the rest and when it had risen to a great height it soon passed away, and likewise the remainder which followed disappeared.  I suppose they announced Merovech's death.”

 

History of the Franks

Gregory of Tours

Book 5, chapter 18

 

 

578

 8th January

 

“There appeared a shooting star, as large as the moon; she sank to the west while slithering like a serpent, with noise.  Its light illuminated the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

Have you, or anyone in modern times, ever seen “a shooting star as large as the moon” (without sending a space-probe to the nucleus)???

To boot: have you ever seen a shooting star illuminating the ground?

 

 

 

21st July

 

“There appeared a shooting star the size on an egg; … it sank to the north-west.  It had a tail or trace over 10 degrees long; she entered into the moon and extinguished.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

12th August

 

“There appeared another shooting star, as large as a bushel, blue, and bright enough to illuminate the ground; … it disappeared in the vapours.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

579

 

“In A. D. 579 a black dragon was killed by a red one.  Moreover, in the same year there was a fight of a white dragon with a black one, the result of which was that the white one ascended to the sky and the black one fell on the earth and died.  As black was the colour of the Later Cheu dynasty, these dragon fights were forebodings of its approaching fall, which actually took place two years later.”

 

The Dragon in China and Japan

pages 47-48

 

 

 

579

 23rd June

 

“A shooting star, as large as 3 bushels, appeared at the principle port of Thai-wei…  Its colour was bluish-white, and its brightness illuminated the ground.  A noise was heard like that of flags flapping in the wind.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

30th August

 

“A shooting star as large as a bushel … sank to the north-east.  Its light illuminated the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

581

 3rd January

 

“There appeared a great shooting star, which made a noise like a wall crumbling down.  Its light illuminated the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

582

 

“In king Childebert's (II) seventh year, which was the twenty-first of Chilperic and Gunthram, in the month of January there were rains and heavy thunder and lightning; blossoms appeared on the trees.

The star which I called above the comet, appeared in such a way that there was a great blackness all around it and it was placed as it were in a hole and gleamed in the darkness, sparkling and scattering rays of light.  And a ray of wonderful size extended from it which appeared like the smoke of a great fire a long way off.  It appeared in the west in the first hour of the night.

 

At Soissons on the day of holy Easter the heavens were seen to be on fire, and there appeared to be two fires, one greater and the other less.  And after the space of two hours they united and formed a great flame and vanished.

 

In the territory of Paris real blood fell from the clouds and dropped on the garments of many men and so defiled them with gore that they shuddered at their own clothes and put them away from them.

 

This prodigy appeared in three places in the territory of that city.  In the territory of Senlis a certain man's house when he rose in the morning appeared to have been sprinkled with blood from within.

 

There was a great plague that year among the people. The sickness took various forms and was severe with pimples and tumors which brought death to many.  Still many who were careful escaped.  We heard that at Narbonne in that year the bubonic plague was very fatal, so that when a man was seized by it he had no time to live.”

 

History of the Franks

Gregory of Tours

Book 6, chapter 14

 

 

 

585

 

 2nd Month, 24th Day

 

“At this time there was a pestilence rife in the land, and many of the people died.”

 

 3rd Month

 

  1st Day

 

“Mononobe no Yugehi no Moriya no Ohomuraji and Nakatomi no Katsumi no Daibu addressed the Emperor, saying:

 

“Why hast thou not consented to follow thy servants’ counsel?  Is not the prevalence of pestilence from the reign of the late Emperor thy father down to thine, so that the nation is in danger of extinction, owing absolutely to the establishment of the exercise of the Buddhist religion by Soga no Omi?”

 

The Emperor gave command, saying:

 

“Manifestly so: let Buddhism be discontinued.”

 

  30th Day

 

“Again the Land was filled with those who were attacked with sores and died thereof.  The persons thus afflicted with sores said  ‘Our bodies are as if they were burnt, as if they were beaten, as if they were broken’  and so lamenting, they died.  Old and young said privately to one another, ‘Is this a punishment for the burning of the Image of Buddha?’ ”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 102, 103

 

 

 

588 - June 25th

 

“During the casting of iron at the East Foundry, a red-colored object as large as several peck measures fell from the sky into the melting-pot.  It was accompanied by rumbling noises like thunder.  The [melted] iron flew over the wall and burned people's houses.”

 

Ch'en-shu

chapter  6

 

Cited within:

Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events

Kevin Yau, Paul Weissman And Donald Yeomans

Meteoritics 29, pages 864-871 (1994)

 

 

 

588

 

“There occurred a very hot and dry summer.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

588

  November 22

 

“There was a comet in Keen New.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 38

 

“Keen Neu, same as S. D. Neu, determined by a, b, &c. Capricorni”

 

 

 

591

 

“A flood, almost exceeding the belief of men, took place in Italy, and after a great deal of confusion a pestilence followed, which was called an inguinal plague; and which slew Pelagius the pope first of all, and after that, thinned the people with a terrible mortality.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

592

  591?

 

“In Italy there was a flood, such as is believed not to have occurred since the time of Noah, which resulted in a great mortality of men by the inguinal disease, which first struck Pope Pelagius.”

 

Annals of Magdeburg

 

 

 

542-594

 

“Contagion is the inseparable symptom of the plague; which, by mutual respiration, is transfused from the infected persons to the lungs and stomach of those who approach them.

 

Yet no restraints were imposed on the free and frequent intercourse of the Roman provinces: from Persia to France, the nations were mingled and infected by wars and emigrations; and the pestilential odour which lurks for years in a bale of cotton was imported, by the abuse of trade, into the most distant regions.

 

The winds might diffuse that subtle venom; but unless the atmosphere be previously disposed for its reception, the plague would soon expire in the cold or temperate climates of the earth.

 

Such was the universal corruption of the air, that the pestilence which burst forth in the fifteenth year of Justinian was not checked or alleviated by any difference of the seasons. In time, its first malignity was abated and dispersed; the disease alternately languished and revived; but it was not till the end of a calamitous period of fifty - two years (AD 542-594) that mankind recovered their health, or the air resumed its pure and salubrious quality.”

 

The History of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire.

Edward Gibbon

Abridged and edited by James Dean 1881

 

Sourced from within:

New Light on the Black Death

The Cosmic connection

Mike Baillie

2006

Page 77

Citing this edition:

Nelson and Brown, Edinburgh, 1832

 

 

 

594

  November 10

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Heu and Wei.  It extended to S. D. Kwei and Lew.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 38

 

“S. D. Heu determined by b Aquarii and another.

Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.

Kwei determined by b, d, e, &c . Andromedæ and stars in Pisces.

Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis.”

 

 

 

607

  March 13 –  ~June 21

 

“A comet was seen in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing and Wan Chang.  It passed through Ta Ling, Woo Chay, and Pih Ho.  It entered Tae Wei and swept Te Tso.  It passed on, and after about 100 days it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 38

 

“S. D. Tsing determined by g, e, l, m Geminorum.

Wan Chang, q, n, f, &c. Ursa Majoris. Ta Ling, 7 and others in Perseus.

Woo Chay, a, b, q, c Auriga and b Tauri.

Pih Ho, a, b, &c. Geminorum.

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Te Tso, b Leonis and stars near.”

 

 

 

607

  April 4 – into the next year

 

“This may relate to two comets, as the account is not very clear.”

 

“A tailed star was seen in the horizon to the west.  It passed through S. D. Kwei, Lew, Keo, and Kang, and then was no longer seen.  In the 9th moon, on the day Sin Wei (October 21), it returned, and was seen in the south.  It was of a reddish colour, and was in the horizon in S. D. Keo and Kang, near their boundaries.  It swept Tae Wei near Te Tso.  It entered most of the S. D., but did not extend to Tsan and Tsing.  In the beginning of the next year it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 39

 

“S. D. Kwei determined by a, d, e, &c. Andromeda and stars in Pisces.

Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis.

Keo determined by a and z Virginis.

Kang determined by i, k, l, m Virginis.

Tsan determined by a, b, &c. Orionis.

Tsing determined by g, e, m, &c. Geminorum.

Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Te Tso, b Leonis and other stars near.”

 

 

 

608

  8th Month – Autumn

 

“Our health is as usual, notwithstanding the increasing warmth of the weather.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 138

 

Being a report from Autumn, it is to be intepreted as a gnereal warming, over previous years, not just at the time of the report.

 

 

 

611

 

“The army of Ulaid was struck by terrible thunder in Bairche.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

613

 

“A star was seen at the seventh hour of the day.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

615

  July

 

“There was a comet in Wan Chang, to the south-east.  Its length was from 5 to 6 tenths of a cubit.  Its colour was dusky, and its extremity pointed.  In the evening it had a waving motion.  It went to the north-west.  For several days it was in Wan Chang.  It went within 4 or 5 tenths of a cubit of Kung, but did not enter that space, and disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 39

 

“Wan Chang, q, f, n Ursæ Majoris.

Kung, or Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

 

 

616

 January 14th

 

“A large shooting star like a bushel fell onto the rebel Lu Ming-yueh's camp.  It destroyed his wall-attacking tower and crushed to death more than 10 people.”

 

Sui-shu.

History of Sui Dynasty (581-618)

chapters 4 and 21

 

Cited within:

Meteorite Falls in China and Some Related Human Casualty Events

Kevin Yau, Paul Weissman And Donald Yeomans

Meteoritics 29, pages 864-871 (1994)

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

says “ten bushels”, whereas Meteorite Falls… says “1 bushel”.

???

 

 

616

 28th May

 

“A large shooting star fell in the capital of the province of Ou (Ou-kiun, actually Sou-tcheou-fou of Kiang-nan); she changed herself into a stone.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

616

  July

 

“There was a comet in Tae Wei, near Woo Te Tso.  Its colour was a yellowish red.  It was from 3 to 4 cubits in length.  After several days it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 39

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Woo Te Tso, b Leonis and small stars near.”

 

 

 

616

  October

 

“A comet was seen in Yung Shih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 39

 

“Yung Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and other stars near.”

 

 

 

616

 14th October

 

“A shooting star, as large as a bushel … made a noise like a wall crumbling down.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

620

 29th November

 

“A star fell at Toung-tou (Ho-nan-fou of Ho-nan): successive noises were heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

620

 12th Month

 

“There was a red appearance in the sky, over a rod in length, and resembling the tail of a fowl in shape.”

 

Nihongi

Volume 2, page 148

 

 

 

622

 

“From spring till autumn there were heavy rains and floods, and the five grains did not reach maturity.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 152

 

 

 

624

 (625?)

 

“The sun is covered.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

625

 

“A dark year.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

626

  March 26, 31

 

“There was a comet in the S. D. Wei and Maou.  On the day Ting Hae (March 31) the comet was in Keuen She.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 40

 

“S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca.

S. D. Maou, determined by the Pleiades.

Keuen She, n Persei.”

 

 

 

626

 34th year of Empress Suiko

 

 1st Month - Spring

 

“Peach and plum trees blossomed.”

 

 3rd Month

 

“It was cold and hoar-frost fell.”

 

 6th Month

 

“Snow fell.”

 

“This year from the 3rd month to the 7th month there were continual rains, and great famine in the Empire.  The old ate the roots of herbs, and died by the roadside.  Infants at the breast died with their mothers.  Thieves and robbers sprang up in great numbers, and could not be put down.”

 

Nihongi

Volume 2, page 154

 

 

 

627

 (625?)

 

“A gloomy year.”

 

The Annals of Tigernach

Translated by Gearóid Mac Niocaill

Electronic edition compiled by:

Emer Purcell,

Donnchadh Ó Corráin

 

Proof corrections by

Donnchadh Ó Corráin,

Emer Purcell,

Beatrix Färber

 

Funded by University College Cork and

Writers of Ireland II Project

 

Note that dates between the various Irish Annals differ, so this entry may refer to the same “dark year” as in 625 in the Annals of Ulster.

 

 

 

628

 36th year of Empress Suiko

 

 2nd Month – Spring

 

“The Empress took to her sick bed.”

 

 3rd Month

 

“There was a total eclipse of the sun.  (4 days later)  The Empress’s illness became very grave, and (death) was unmistakably near.  So she sent for the Imperial Prince Tamura, and addressed him, saying:

 

“To ascend to the Celestial Dignity, and therewith to regulate the vast foundation, to direct the manifold machinery of government, and thereby nourish the people – this is not a matter to be lightly spoken of, but one which demands constant and serious attention.  Do thou therefore be careful and observant, and let no hasty words escape thee.  (the next day)  The Empress died at the age of seventy-five.”

 

4th Month – summer

 

“Hail fell, of the size of peaches.  (the next day)  Hail fell, of the size of plums.”

 

“There was a drought, which lasted from spring till summer.”

 

9th Month – Autumn

 

“The rites of mourning for the Empress began.  At this time all the Ministers each pronounced a funeral eulogy at the shrine of the temporary burial place.  Before this time the Empress had given her dying injunctions to the Ministers, saying:

 

Of late years the five grains have not produced well, and there is great famine among the people.  Let there be therefore no costly interment … ”

 

Nihongi

Volume 2, page 155

 

 

 

634

 8th Month – Autumn

 

“A long star was seen in the south.  The people of that time called it a besom-star.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 166

 

 

 

634

  September 22 – October 3

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Heu and Wei.  It passed through Heuen Heaou.  On the day Yih Hae (October 3) it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 40

 

“S. D. Heu determined by b Aquarii and another.

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.

Heuen Heaou, one of the 12 kung, answering to our sign Aquarius, and comprising S. D. Neu, Heu, and Wei.”

 

 

 

635

 1st Month – Spring

 

“The besom-star went round and was seen in the East.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 167

 

 

 

636

 

5th Month – Summer

 

“There were great rains and floods.”

 

 

“This year, there was a great drought, and there was famine throughout the Empire.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 167

 

 

 

637

 

 2nd Month – Spring

 

“A great star floated from East to West, and there was noise like that of thunder.  The people of that day said that it was the sound of the falling star.  Others said that it was earth-thunder.  Hereupon the Buddhist Priest Bin said ‘It is not the falling star, but the Celestial Dog, the sound of whose barking is like thunder.’ ”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 167

 

 

 

638

 

 7th Month – Autumn

 

“There was a great storm, which broke trees and tore up houses.”

 

 9th Month

 

“There were continuous rains, and peaches and plums blossomed.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 168

 

 

 

639

 

 1st Month – Spring

 

  12th day

 

“There was thunder without any clouds.”

 

  22nd day

 

“There was a storm with thunder.”

 

  26th day

 

“A long star appeared in the north-west.  Priest Bin said that it was a besom-star.  When it appeared, there was famine.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 169

 

 

 

639 (638?)

  April 30

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Peih and Maou.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 40

 

“S. D. Peih determined by a, g, d, &c. Tauri.

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.

The ‘She Ke'makes the year 638.”

 

 

 

640

 2nd Month – Spring

 

“A star entered the moon.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 169

 

 

 

641

  August 1 - 26

 

“There was a comet in Tae Wei.  It passed over Lang Wei.  In the 7th moon, day Kea Seuh (August 26), it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 40

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Lang Wei, Coma Berenices.”

 

 

 

642

 22nd July

 

“In the west there appeared a shooting star as large as the moon.  It went to the south-west to a length of 30 degrees, and extinguished.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

 

642

 

 3rd Month

 

  3rd Day

 

“There was rain without any clouds.”

 

 

“This month, there were continual rains.”

 

 

 4th Month – Summer

 

“This month there were continuous rains.”

 

 6th Month

 

“Fine rain fell.”

 

 

“[This month] There was a great drought.”

 

 

 7th Month - Autumn

 

  9th Day

 

“A guest-star entered the moon.”

 

  25th Day

 

“The Ministers conversed with one another, saying:

 

“In accordance with the teachings of the village hafuri, there have been in some places horses and cattle killed as a sacrifice to the Gods of the various (Shinto) shrines, in others frequent changes of the market-places, or prayers to the River-Gods.  None of the practices have had hitherto any good result.”

 

Then Soga no Oho-omi answered and said:

 

“The Mahayana Sutra ought to be read by way of extract in the temples, our sins repented of, as Buddha teaches, and thus with humility rain should be prayed for.”

 

  27th Day

 

“In the South Court of the Great Temple, the images of Buddha and of the Bosatsu, and the images of the four Heavenly Kings, were magnificently adorned.  A multitude of priests, by humble request, read the Mahayana Sutra.  On this occasion Soga no Oho-omi held a censer in his hands, and having burnt incense on it, put up a prayer.”

 

  28th Day

 

“A slight rain fell.”

 

  29th Day

 

“With prayers for rain being unsuccessful, the reading of the Sutra was discontinued.”

 

 8th Month

 

  1st Day

 

“The Emperor made a progress to the river-source of Minabuchi.  Here he knelt down and prayed, worshipping towards the four quarters, and looking up to Heaven.  Straightaway there was thunder and a great rain, which eventually fell for five days, and plentifully bedewed the Empire.”

 

“Hereupon the peasantry throughout the Empire cried with one voice, ‘Bansai’, and said, ‘An Emperor of exceeding virtue!’ ”

 

 10th Month - Winter

 

  8th Day

 

“There was an earthquake, with rain.”

 

  9th Day

 

“This night there was an earthquake, with wind.”

 

  24th Day

 

“There was an earthquake at midnight.”

 

 

“This month summer ordinances were put in force.  There was rain without clouds.”

 

 

 11th Month

 

  2nd Day

 

“There was great rain, with thunder.”

 

  5th Day

 

“At midnight there was a thunder-clap in the north-west corner.”

 

  8th Day

 

“It thundered five times in the north-west corner.”

 

  9th Day

 

“The weather was warm, as in spring.”

 

  10th Day

 

“Rain fell.”

 

  11th Day

 

“The weather was warm, as in spring.”

 

  13th Day

 

“There was a thunder-clap in the northern quarter, and wind sprang up.”

 

 12th Month

 

  1st Day

 

“The weather was mild, as in spring.”

 

  3rd Day

 

“It thundered five times during the day, and twice at night.”

 

  9th Day

 

“It thundered twice in the east, and there was wind and rain.”

 

  20th Day

 

“It thundered three times in the north-east corner.”

 

  23rd Day

 

“It thundered once in the night with a splitting noise.”

 

  30th Day

 

“The weather was mild, as in spring.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 173 - 177

 

 

 

643

 

 1st Month, 1st Day, Spring

 

“In the morning, great clouds of five colours covered all the sky, except in the north-east, where they were wanting.  A mist of a uniform blue color arose from the earth on all sides.”

 

 10th Day

 

“A great storm.”

 

 2nd Month

 

  25th Day

 

“The leaves and flowers of herbs and trees were injured by hail.”

 

 

“In this month there were wind, thunder, and ice-rain.  Winter ordinances were in force.”

 

 

 4th Month, Summer

 

  7th Day

 

“A great storm, with rain.”

 

  8th Day

 

“A wind sprang up and the weather was chilly.”

 

  20th Day

 

“There was a west wind and hail.  The weather was cold, and people wore three wadded garments.”

 

  25th Day

 

“It was reported from the province of Ohomi that hail had fallen there one inch in diameter.”

 

7th Month - Autumn

 

“In this month the water of the Mamuta pond stank greatly, and was covered with small grubs, which had black mouths and white bodies.”

 

 8th Month

 

  15th Day

 

“The water of the Mamuta pond changed, and became like indigo juice.  Its surface was covered with dead grubs.  Moreover the running water in the drains became coagulated to the thickness of three or four inches, and the fishes, both great and small, stank, as when they are scorched to death in summer.  They were therefore unfit for food.”

 

 9th Month

 

  19th Day

 

“On this day there was great rain, with hail.”

 

 

“In this month the water of the Mamuta pond gradually changed, and became white.  Moreover, it was no longer ill-smelling.”

 

 

 10th Month

 

“In this month the water of the Mamuta pond became clear again.”

 

 11th Month

 

  1st Day

 

“At this time five coloured banners and umbrellas shone in the sky, and descending, hung over the Temple to the sound of various music.  Every one looked up with cries of admiration.  At length they were pointed out to Iruka, upon which the banners and umbrellas were changed into a black cloud, so that Iruka was unable to see them.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 178, 179, 183

 

 

 

The entire Japanese Empire was reorganised from top to bottom after these calamitous weather-events, including agricultural reforms.

 

 

 

644

 Around June

 

“A shooting star appeared … There was a noise similar to thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

645

 

 1st Month

 

“On mountain peaks, by riversides, or among shrines and temples, there was a something visible afar, and there was heard a humming of monkeys, as it were ten or sometimes twenty together.  But when one approached to see what it might be, nothing was visible.  There was still heard the sound of crying and screaming, but no one was able to distinguish any bodily form.

 

The men of that day said ‘These are the messengers of the Great Deity of Ise.’ ”

 

 12th Month

 

“The Emperor removed the capital to Toyosaki in Nagara at Naniha.  Old people, remarking upon this to one another, said: ‘The movement of rats towards Naniha from spring until summer was an omen of the removal of the capital.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 190

 

 

 

646

 

“In this year the rats of the province of Koshi drew together in troops by night and day, and took their departure towards the East.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 226

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Contrary to popular belief, plague is still alive and well in a number of locations on four continents.  Over the past ten years at least 20,000 individuals (writing in 2001) have contracted the disease.  Four thousand have actually died from it in such places as Peru, Vietnam, China, India, southern Africa and Madagascar.

 

Millions of wild rodents in central Asia, south-west China, east Africa, the central Andes, the western USA, Brazil and central India still carry the plague bacillus.

 

Modern research on surviving wild-animal reservoirs of plague – monitored by the Plague Section of the US Center for Disease Control – has concluded that most plague outbreaks are caused by sudden and severe climatic changeMassively excessive rainfall is the most likely cause of plague spread, especially if it follows a drought, although a severe drought followed by normal weather could, theoretically, also spark an outbreak.”

 

Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World

David Keys

pages 25, 413

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Record of the World’s Change, by Li Ch’un Feng (602-667):

 

“Comets are vile stars.

 

Every time they appear in the south, something happens to wipe out the old and establish the new.

 

Also, when comets appear, whales die.

 

In Sung, Ch’i and later Chi’in times, when a comet appeared in the Constellation of the Big Dipper, all soldiers died in chaos…

 

When a comet appears in the North Star, the emperor is replaced.  If it appears in the end of the Big Dipper, everywhere there are uprisings and war continues for several years.  If it appears in the bowl of the Dipper, a prince controls the emperor.  Gold and gems become worthless.  Another explanation: Scoundrels harm nobles.  Some leaders appear, causing disturbances.  Ministers conspire to rebel against the emperor…

 

When a comet travels north but points south the country has a major calamity.  Western neighbors invade and later there are floods.  When a comet travels east and points west, there are uprisings in the east.

 

When a comet appears in the constellation Virgo, some places are flooded and there is severe famine.  People eat each other…  If the comet appears in the Constellation Scorpio, there are uprisings, and the emperor in his palace has many worries.  The price of rice goes up.  People migrate.  There is a plague of locusts.

 

… When a comet appears in the Constellation Andromeda, there are floods and migrations of people.  Many rise up and the country is divided by civil war.  When a comet appears in the Constellation Pisces there is first drought and later flooding.  Rice is expensive.  Domesticated animals die and an epidemic strikes the army.

 

When a comet travels into the Constellation Taurus, in the middle of the double month, blood is shed … dead bodies lie on the ground.  Within three years the emperor dies and the country is in chaos.  When a comet appears in Orion there are major uprisings.  Princes and ministers conspire to become emperor.  The emperor has many worries.  Everywhere there is disaster by war …

 

When a comet appears in the Constellation Hydra, there is war and some conspire to overthrow the emperor.  Fish and salt are expensive.  The emperor dies.  Rice also becomes expensive.  There is no emperor in the country.  The people hate life and don’t even want to speak of it.”

 

Record of the World’s Change

Li Ch’un Feng, 602-667

Translated by Heather Smith and Xie Yong

 

Within:

Comet

Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan

1985

pages 20, 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

650

 

“The rising of a star.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

652

 4th Month, 20th Day

 

“From this day forward rain began to fall continually, lasting for nine days.  It demolished buildings, and destroyed the young rice plants in the fields.  Many men, horses and oxen were drowned.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 242

 

 

 

653

 November

 

“A star fell in the camp of the rebels from the districts of Mo-tcheou and of Ou-tcheou (Yen-tcheou-fou and Kin-boa-fou of Tche-kiang).”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

654

 1st Month, 1st Day

 

“In the night the rats migrated towards the Yamato capital.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 245

 

 

 

654

 

“Fire fell from heaven, and a serious pestilence came upon men.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 219

 

 

 

655

 

 5th Month, 1st Day – Summer

 

“In the midst of the Void [“Sora”], there was seen one riding on a dragon, who resembled a man of Thang in appearance.  He had a broad hat of green oiled stuff.  He rode fast from the peak of Katsuraki and disappeared on Mount Ikoma.  When it became noon, he galloped off over the firs of Sumiyoshi in a westerly direction.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 248, 249

 

 

 

661

 

 8th Month, 1st Day

 

“The prince Imperial, in attendance on the Empress’s remains, returned as far as the Palace of Ihase.  That evening, on the top of Mount Asakura, there was a demon [or ‘spirit’] wearing a green hat, who looked down on the funeral proceedings.  All the people uttered exclamations of wonder.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 272

 

 12th Month

 

“Information was received from Koyryo that in this 12th month the cold in that country was so intense that the River Phè-kang was frozen.  [probably the Thé-tong-kang]”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 275

 

 

 

663

 

Darkness on the Kalends 1st of May at the ninth hour, and in the same summer the sky seemed to be on fire.  An earthquake in Britain.  The plague reached Ireland on the Kalends 1st of August.  In Mag Itha of Fotharta the plague first raged in Ireland.  From the death of Patrick 203 years, and from the first mortality 112 years.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

663

  September 29 - October 1

 

“There was a comet in Tso She Te.  It was about 2 cubits in length.  On the day Yih Sze (October 1) it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 41

 

“Tso She Te, x, o, p Boötis.”

 

 

 

663

 

“Quasi-solar eclipse 10 Haracliae.”

 

Annales Fuldenses Antiqui

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 116

 

 

 

664

 

“Quasi-eclipse at the tenth hour, 5 Nones May (3rd of May).”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 2

 

Is the same event as in 663?

 

Also, the annals of Ulster put the sky on fire at the beginning of May 663.

 

 

 

 664

 

 3rd Month

 

“There was a star which fell north of the capital.”

 

“This spring there was an earthquake.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 275

 

 

 

664

 

“The great mortality. Diarmait son of Aed Sláine and Blamac and Mael Bresail, sons of Mael Dúin, died i.e. of the buide Chonaill.  The falling asleep—from the same pestilence i.e. the buide Chonaill—of Féichéne of Fobar, and Ailerán the learned, and Crónán son of Silne.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

664

 

“A sudden pestilence depopulated first the southern parts of Britain, and afterwards attacking the province of the Northumbrians, ravaged the country far and near, and destroyed a great multitude of men.  By this plague the aforesaid priest of the Lord, Tuda, was carried off, and was honourably buried in the monastery called Paegnalaech.  Moreover, this plague prevailed no less disastrously in the island of Ireland.”

 

Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England

 

A revised translation with introduction, biography, and notes By

A. M. Sellar

George Bell and Sons

London

1907

 

Project Gutenburg, 2011

 

 

 

664?  (675?)

 

“At the time of the pestilence, already often mentioned, which ravaged all the country far and wide, … … on a sudden a light from heaven, like a great sheet, came down upon them all, and struck them with such amazement, that, in consternation, they even left off singing their hymn … … But that resplendent light, in comparison wherewith the sun at noon-day might seem dark, soon after, rising from that place, removed to the south side of the monastery, that is, to the westward of the chapel, and having continued there some time, and rested upon those parts, in the sight of them all withdrew itself again to heaven …

 

The radiance of this light was so great, that one of the older brethren, who at the same time was in their chapel with another younger than himself, related in the morning, that the rays of light which came in at the crannies of the doors and windows, seemed to exceed the utmost brightness of daylight.”

 

Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 

666

 

“The plague still in Ireland.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

666

 15TH February

 

“There appeared a star … which sank to the east.  A noise was heard like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

666

 

 7th Month - Autumn

 

“There were great floods.”

 

 Winter

 

“This winter the rats of the capital migrated towards Afumi.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 285

 

 

 

667

 

“The great plague i.e. the buide Chonaill.  Diarmait and Blamac, two kings of Ireland, and Feichíne of Fobar, and many others died, i.e. of the buide Chonaill, according to another book.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

667

  May 24 – June 12

 

“There was a comet in the north-east.  Its place was in Woo Chay, between S. D. Peih and Maou.  On the day Yih Hae (June 12) it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 41

 

“S. D. Peih determined by a, g, d, & c. Tauri.

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.

Woo Chay, a, b, q, k Aurigæ and b Tauri.”

 

 

 

669

 

“A great snowfall occurred.  A great famine.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

670

 

 4th Month, 30th Day

 

“There was great rain, with thunder.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 293

 

 

 

670

 Around December

 

“A shooting star was seen which made a noise like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

670’s

 

“This story is set in the 670s, during the Tang dynasty.  A character, Liu I, features in a complicated love story wherein he meets the daughter of the Dragon king (the Dragon king is a Lord of Heaven) and takes a letter from her to the Dragon king’s palace.  Liu I met with the Dragon king, Ling Hsii, and the Dragon king’s brother Ch’ien T’ang. Liu I asks the Dragon king about his brother.  The Dragon king’s reply is interesting:

 

“He (Chi’ien T’ang) is so wild and impetuous that I am afraid he might do great damage.  The great flood which covered the earth for nine years during the reign of the emperor Yao was caused by him in his anger.  Because he had a quarrel with a heavenly ruler he caused a great flood which reached to the summits of the five tall mountains.”

 

 

… … The story then describes Ch’ien T’ang in more detail:

 

“… a sudden uproar broke out, a noise rending the sky and shaking the earth and causing the whole palace (the sky) to tremble, and smoke and clouds to billow out with a fierce hissing.  A red dragon burst in (Ch’ien T’ang) a thousand feet long, with flashing eyes, a blood red tongue, scarlet scales and a fiery beard.  The column to which he had been fettered was dragged along by him on a chain through the air.  Snow, rain and hail were swirling in wild confusion.  There was a thunderclap and the dragon soared up towards the sky and disappeared.”

 

 

Ch’ien T’ang:  I fought those damned dragons and utterly defeated them.

The Dragon king:  How many did you kill?

Ch’ien T’ang:  Six hundred thousand.

The Dragon king:  Was farmland damaged?

Ch’ien T’ang:  Over some eight hundred miles.

 

New Light on the Black Death

Page 66

 

Quoting from:

Chinese Folktales.

Wilhelm, R. 1971

translated from the German by E. Osers

G. Bell and Sons, London

Page 125

 

 

 

673

 

“A thin and tremulous cloud in the shape of a rainbow appeared at the fourth vigil of night on the sixth feria preceding Easter, extending from east to west through a clear sky.  The moon became the colour of blood.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

“A rainbow appeared in the month of March, and all flesh trembled.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

page 220

 

 

 

674

 

“[In] 660, Cadwallawn, son of Cadvan, king of the Britons, died, and his son, Cadwalader the Blessed, became king in his room; and after ten years of peace, the great disease, called the "yellow pest,” took place through the whole island of Britain; and that began in the year of Christ 674.

 

And on account of that pest, Cadwalader and many of the best men of the Britons went to Armorica, where their countrymen had been settled a long time previously: and on account of that disease neither war nor agriculture could take place in the island of Britain.

 

And a great famine ensued, which destroyed an immense number of the Cymry and Saxons; and the famine and the pest lasted eleven years, until the affliction became very severe to all the people in the isle of Britain.”

 

Brut Y Tywysogion

Chronicle Of The Princes

 

 “The above history was transcribed from the book of

George Williams, Esq., of Aberpergwm, by me, Thomas

Richards, curate of Llangrallo, in the year 1764.”

 

“And I, Iorwerth, son of Iorwerth, transcribed it from the

book of the Rev. Mr. Richards, in the year 1790.”

 

Printed in:

 The Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Assocation

Volume 10, third series, J. Russel Smith, London, 1864

 

 

 

675

 

 11th Month

 

“There was a great earthquake this month.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 330

 

 

 

676

  January 3

 

“There was a comet to the south of S. D. Keo and Kang.  It was 5 cubits in length.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 41

 

“S. D. Keo determined by a and z Virginis.

S. D. Kang determined by i, k, l, q Virginis.”

 

 

 

676

  July 7 – September 3

 

“In the 3rd year of the same epoch, the 7th moon, day Ting Hae, there was a comet in the eastern part of S. D. Tsing, pointing towards Pih Ho.  It was about 3 cubits in length.  Its luminous envelope increased greatly until it became 30 cubits in length.  It pointed towards Chung Tae and Wan Chang.  In the 9th moon, day Yih Yew (September 3), it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 41

 

“S. D. Keo determined by a and z Virginis.

S. D. Kang determined by i, k, l, q Virginis.”

 

 

 

676

 

“A star of marvellous brightness was seen shining throughout the whole world.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

676

 

 5th Month, 7th Day

 

“The Governor of the province of Shimotsuke represented to the Emperor that, owing to a bad year, the peasantry in his domain were starving and wished to sell their children.  The Court refused permission.”

 

 6th Month

 

“This summer there was great drought.  Messengers were sent to all quarters to make offerings of cloth and to pray to all the gods of Heaven and Earth.  Moreover, the priests and nuns were invited to offer supplications to the Three Precious Things.  Still there was no rain, and therefore the five grains did not grow, and the peasants were starving.”

 

 7th Month, 16th Day – Autumn

 

“A star appeared in the East, seven or eight feet in the length.  In the 9th month it at length disappeared from the sky.”

 

 8th Month, 2nd Day

 

“Sustenance fiefs, varying in each case, were granted to all from the rank of Prince of the Blood down to Daibu of Shokin rank, and also to Imperial Princesses, Princesses and lady officials of the Palace.”

 

 9th Month, 1st Day

 

“Owing to the rain, the beginning of the month was not announced.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 332, 333

 

 

 

677

 

 5th Month

 

“In this month there was drought in the capital and the Home provinces, and prayers were made for rain.”

 

 6th Month, 14th Day

 

“There was a great earthquake.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 336

 

 

 

677

 

“A bright comet was seen in the months of September and October.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

677

 

“In these days also appeared a comet for three months, and each day it shone in the morning with a splendour equal to the sun.”

Flowers of History

Roger of Wendover

 

 

 

678

 

“In the year of our Lord 678, which is the eighth of the reign of Egfrid, in the month of August, appeared a star, called a comet, which continued for three months, rising in the morning, and sending forth, as it were, a tall pillar of radiant flame.”

 

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 “ … the monastery of Coldingiham was destroyed by fire from heaven.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Translation by Rev. James Ingram (London, 1823)

with additional readings from the translation of Dr. J.A. Giles (London, 1847)

Produced by Douglas B. Killings for Project Gutenberg

 

 

 

678

 

 10th Month, 1st Day – Winter

 

“At Naniha there fell a rain of something like floss silk.  It was five or six feet long and seven or eight inches wide.  It floated on the wind and waved from the fir woods and reed plains.  The people of that day called it ‘sweet dew’.”

 

 12th Month, 27th day.

 

“In the course of this month there was a great earthquake in Tsukushi.  The ground split open to the width of two rods and a length of more than 3000 rods.  Many of the peasants’ houses in all the villages were brought down in ruins.  At this time there was a peasant’s house situated on the top of a hill.  On the evening of the earthquake the hill crumbled down and changed its place.  Yet the house remained intact and was not destroyed, and the inmates did not know that the hill had come down and that their house had moved away.  When it became daylight, however, they discovered what had happened to their great amazement.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 339, 340

 

 

 

679

 11th June

 

“A large shooting star …”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

679

 

 6th Month

 

  1st Day

 

“Hail fell as big as peaches.”

 

  23rd Day

 

“Prayer was made for rain.”

 

 7th Month,  6th Day

 

“Prayer was made for rain.”

 

 10th Month,  11th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 11th Month,  14th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 342 - 344

 

 

 

680

 

“A heavy leprosy in Ireland, which is called Bolgach.”

 

The Annals of Tigernach

 

 

 

680

 5th January

 

“A large shooting star illuminated the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

680

 

 2nd Month, 18th Day

 

“A sound resembling that of drums was heard in the Eastern quarter.”

 

 6th Month

 

  8th Day

 

“There was a rain of ashes.”

 

  14th Day

 

“There was a great thunderstorm.”

 

 7th Month,  5th Day

 

“On this day there was prayer for rain.”

 

 8th Month

 

  5th Day

 

“The officials of the department of law gave tribute of auspicious stalks of grain.  Beginning on this day for three days there was rain with floods.”

 

  14th Day

 

“There was a storm which broke trees and damaged houses.”

 

  23rd Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

  27th Day

 

“The Emperor commiserated the needy common people and also the monks and nuns of the temples within the capital and gave them alms.”

 

 11th Month

 

  1st Day

 

“There was an eclipse of the sun.”

 

  3rd Day

 

“There was a brightness in the East from the hour of the Dog to the hour of the Rat.  (8 p.m. to midnight)”

 

  7th Day

 

“The Emperor issued an edict to the officials, saying:

 

“If any one knows of any means of benefiting the state or of increasing the welfare of the people, let him appear in Court and make a statement in person.  If what he says is reasonable, his ideas will be adopted and embodied in regulations.”

 

  10th Day

 

“There was thunder in the West.”

 

  16th Day

 

“There was an eclipse of the moon.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 345-349

 

 

 

681

 

 3rd Month,  20th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 6th Month

 

  17th Day

 

“Prayer was made for rain.”

 

  24th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 9th Month

 

  16th Day

 

“A comet appeared.”

 

  17th Day

 

“The planet Mars entered the Moon.”

 

10th Month

 

  1st Day

 

“There was an eclipse of the sun.”

 

  18th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 11th Month,  2nd Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 350-353

 

 

 

681

  October 17 – November 3

 

“There was a comet in the middle of Teen She.  It was 50 cubits in length.  It gradually lessened and went to the east.  It passed on to Ho Koo.  On the day Kwei Chow (November 3) it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 42

 

“Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.

Ho Koo, a, b, g Aquilæ.”

 

 

 

681

 

“Bishop Wilfrid, while preaching the Gospel to the people, not only delivered them from the misery of eternal damnation, but also from a terrible calamity of temporal death. For no rain had fallen in that district for three years before his arrival in the province, whereupon a grievous famine fell upon the people and pitilessly destroyed them; insomuch that it is said that often forty or fifty men, wasted with hunger, would go together to some precipice, or to the sea-shore, and there, hand in hand, in piteous wise cast them themselves down either to perish by the fall, or be swallowed up by the waves.

 

But on the very day on which the nation received the Baptism of the faith, there fell a soft but plentiful rain; the earth revived, the fields grew green again, and the season was pleasant and fruitful.”

 

Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 

682

 

 1st Month,  19th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 3rd Month,  7th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 7th Month

 

  17th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

  27th Day

 

“On this day it was reported from the provinces both of Shinano and Kibi that hoar-frost had fallen, moreover that owing to storms the five grains had not formed.”

 

 8th Month

 

  3rd Day

 

“On this evening at twilight a great star passed from the East to the West.”

 

  5th Day

 

“There was a great rainbow within the Palace.”

 

  11th Day

 

“A thing appeared in shape like a Buddhist baptismal flag, and of a flame colour.  It floated through the void towards the north and was seen by all the provinces.  Some said that it sank into the Sea of Koshi.  On this day a white vapour arose on the Eastern Mountain, four fathoms in size.”

 

  12th Day

 

“There was a great earthquake.”

 

  17th Day

 

“There was another earthquake.  On this day there was a rainbow at dawn right in the middle of the sky and opposite the sun.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 354-357

 

 

 

682

 

“Beginning of the mortality of children in the month of October.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

682

 

“A great plague in Britain, in which Cadwaladr son of Cadwallon dies.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

683

  April 21 – May 15

 

“There was a comet to the north of Woo Chay.  In the 4th moon, day Sin Wei (May 15), it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 42

 

“Woo Chay, a, b, &c. Aurigæ and b Tauri.”

 

 

 

683

 

“Loch nEchach was turned into blood this year.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

translated by William M. Hennessy, Gearóid Mac Niocaill

Electronic edition compiled by Beatrix Färber and Ruth Murphy

Funded by University College, Cork and

Professor Marianne McDonald via the CELT Project

 

The Annals of Tigernach has this in 684

 

 

 

683

 

“A plague was in Ireland.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

683

 

“The mortality of the children.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

683

 

 7th Month, 15th Day

 

“Prayer was made for rain.”

 

 

“From this month, a drought began which lasted till the eighth month.”

 

 

 9th Month,  2nd Day

 

“There was a great storm.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 360-361

 

 

 

684

 

 6th Month,  4th Day

 

“Prayer was offered for rain.”

 

 7th Month,  23rd Day

 

“A comet appeared in the North-west, more than ten feet long.”

 

 10th Month,  14th Day

 

“At the hour of the boar (10 p.m.) there was a great earthquake.  Throughout the country men and women shrieked aloud, and knew not East from West.  Mountains fell down and rivers gushed forth; the official buildings of the provinces and districts, the barns and houses of the common people, the temples, pagodas and shrines were destroyed in numbers which surpass all estimate.

 

In consequence many of the people and of domesticated animals were killed or injured.  The hot springs of Iyo were dried up at this time and ceased to flow.  In the province of Tosa more than 500,000 shiro of cultivated land were swallowed up and became sea.

 

Old men said that never before had there been such an earthquake.

 

On this night a rumbling noise like that of drums was heard in the East.  Some said that the island of Idzu had increased of itself on two sides, the north and west, to the extent of more than 300 rods, and that a new island had been formed.  The noise like that of drums was the sound made by the gods in constructing this island.”

 

11th Month

 

  3rd Day

 

“The Governor of the province of Tosa reported that owing to a great tide which rose high, and an overflowing rush of sea-water, many of the ships used for conveying tribute had been sunk and lost.”

 

  21st Day

 

“At dusk the seven stars drifted together to the North-East and sank.   [The seven stars are the stars of the Northern Bushel, as the Chinese call Charles’ Wain.]”

 

  23rd Day

 

“At sunset a star fell in the quarter of the East as large as a jar.

 

At the hour of the dog (7 to 9pm) the constellations were wholly disordered, and stars fell like rain.”

 

 

“During this month, there was a star which shot up in the zenith and proceeded along with the Pleiades until the end of the month, when it disappeared.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 364-367

 

 

 

684

 

“A great earthquake in the Isle of Man.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

684

  July 8 - August 10

 

“There was a comet in the west.  It was about 10 cubits in length.  In the 8th moon, day Kea Shin (August 10), it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 42

 

“Biot makes this September 6th and October 9th; by computation it comes out as I have rendered it.”

 

 

 

684

  September 12

 

“There was a star resembling a half moon in the west.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 42

 

“Biot makes it October 11th.”

 

 

 

685

 

“A great windstorm and earthquake in the island of Ireland.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

685

 

 3rd Month

 

“In this month there was a rain of ashes in the province of Shinano.  The herbs and trees all withered up.”

 

 4th Month, 4th Day

 

“The Governor of the province of Kii reported that the hot springs of Muro had dried up and ceased to flow.”

 

 12th Month, 10th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.  It started in the West.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 369-373

 

 

 

686

 

 1st Month, 19th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

 6th Month, 12th Day

 

“Prayer was made for rain.”

 

 11th Month, 17th Day

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 375, 377, 384

 

 

 

688

 

“Part of the sun was obscured.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

688

 

 7th Month

 

  11th Day

 

“By reason of the drought, there was great praying for rain.”

 

  20th Day

 

“The Pèkché priest Dōzō was commanded to pray for rain.  Before a morning had passed, rain fell plentifully throughout the Empire.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 388

 

 

 

689

 1st Month, 9th Day

 

“The Empress gave orders to the Governor of the province of Idzumo to send up to the capital men of the frontier lands who had met with stress of weather.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 390

 

 

 

689

 

“The rain turned to blood in Britain, and in Ireland milk and butter turned to blood.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

690

 4th Month, 22nd Day

 

“By reason of a drought, rain was begun to be prayed for in various places.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 398

 

 

 

690

 

“A great windstorm on the sixteenth of the Kalends of October 16 Sept. caused the drowning of some six of the community of Í.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

691

 

 6th Month

 

“Sleet fell in forty places in the capital and provinces.”

 

  19th Day

 

“An edict was issued as follows:

 

This summer profuse rain has fallen beyond measure, and We fear that certainly injury will be caused to the grain-crops.  Our anxiety of the night lasts until the morning, as We ponder where the blame for this lies.”

 

 

“The rain had lasted from the 4th month until this month.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 403,404

 

 

 

692

 

 5th Month

 

  17th Day

 

“Daibu were sent as messengers to the celebrated mountains, and to the hills and rivers, to pray to them for rain.”

 

 (Intercalary 5th Month)

 

  3rd Day

 

“Great floods.  Commissioners were sent to visit the districts and provinces, one after another, making loans to those who, having met with disaster, were unable to support themselves, and allowing them to fish and cut wood in the hills and forests, the ponds and marshes.”

 

 6th Month

 

  9th Day

 

“The senior officials of the districts and provinces were commanded each to pray to the celebrated mountains, and to the hills and rivers for rain.”

 

 7th Month

 

  28th Day

 

“On this night Mars and Jupiter approached and receded from one another four times in the room of one pace, alternately shining and disappearing.” 

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 407-409

 

 

 

692

 

“The moon turned to the colour of blood on the feast of the Nativity of St. Martin.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

693

 

“A bloody rain fell in Laigin.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

693

 

“A shower of blood in Leinster, so that it was like streams for the space of three days and three nights.”

 

The Annals of Tigernach

 

 

 

693

 

 3rd Month

 

  17th Day

 

“An Imperial decree was issued directing that the cultivation throughout the Empire of such vegetable productions as the mulberry tree, hemp, pears, chestnuts, and greens, should be encouraged, as auxiliaries to the five grains.”

 

 7th Month, 14th Day

 

“Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the various shrines and pray for rain.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, pages 411 - 413

 

 

 

695

 

 6th Month, 3rd Day

 

“Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the shrines of the capital and the four Home provinces and pray for rain.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 418

 

 

 

697

 

 5th Month

 

  8th Day

 

“Daibu were sent as Envoys to the various shrines to pray for rain.”

 

  28th Day

 

“Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the various shrines and pray for rain.”

 

Nihongi

volume 2, page 422

 

 

 

698

 

“The bloody rain occurred in the island of Britain, so that the milk, butter, and cheese, acquired a red colour like blood.”

 

Brut Y Tywysogion

Chronicle Of The Princes

 

 

698

 

“A murrain of cattle in the land of the Saxons.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

699

 

“The cattle mortality broke out in Ireland on the Kalends of February in Mag Trega in Tethba.  Famine and pestilence prevailed in Ireland for three years, so that man ate man.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

700

 

“A great frost in this year so that the lakes and rivers of Ireland froze, and the sea between Ireland and Scotland froze so that there was travelling between them on ice.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

700

 

“The mortality of cows.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

706

 

“Two earthquakes in the same week in the month of December in the northern part of Ireland.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

There are only 13 earthquake accounts in all The Annals of Ulster, which span from 431 to 1540.

9 of these occurred between 600 and 768

 

 

 

707

 24th April

 

“There appeared a shooting star which made a noise like thunder and whose light illuminated the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

707

  November 16 - December 17

 

“There was a comet in the west.  In the 11th moon, day Kea Yin (December 17), it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 43

 

 

 

708

 16th March

 

“There was a large star that fell in the south-west which made a noise like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

708

  March 30

 

“There was a comet between S. D. Wei and Maou.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 43

 

“S. D. Wei determined by three stars in Musca.

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.”

 

 

 

708

  September 21

 

“There was a comet in Tsze Kung.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 43

 

“Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

 

 

708

 

“The murrain of cows raged again.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

708

 

“A pestilence called bacach with dysentery in Ireland.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

708

 

“A hard winter.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 22

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Breves

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 64

 

 

 

709

 

“A hard spring deficient in crops.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 22

 

 

 

“A hard year deficient in crops.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 22

 

 

 

 “Hard and deficient crops.”

 

Annales Nazariani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 23

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 33

 

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 33

 

 

 

“A hard winter.”

 

Annales Augienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 67

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 73

 

 

 

Sometime between 710 and 713

 

“In the 1st year of the epoch Yen Ho, the 6th moon, there was a comet.  From Heen Yuen it entered Tae Wei.  It passed on to Ta Keo and disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 43

 

“Heen Yuen, Regulus and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor.

Ta Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Ta Keo, Arcturus.”

 

“The epoch Yen Ho is not one of the regular epochs of this dynasty. It appears to have been somewhere between 710 and 713.”

 

 

 

710

 

“A hard year deficient in crops.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 73

 

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 138

 

 

 

 710

 

“A great inundation of waters.”

 

Annales Mettenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 322

 

 

 

711

 

“A great inundation of waters.”

 

Annales Petaviani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 7

 

 

Annales Laureshamenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 24

 

 

Annales Nazariani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 25

 

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 289

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 33

 

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 33

 

 

 

 “An inundation of waters.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

711

 

“It was Rudyard Kipling who wrote: ‘East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet.’ and it’s a worldview that still has currency today.  Islam and Christianity seem to have become ideological monoliths – citadels whose gates are firmly closed to one another.  But, they haven’t always lived such separate lives.

 

In the year 711, Muslim forces invaded Spain [Iberia] and created a society so rich and so powerful, it was the envy of the known world.  This wasn’t the rigid ferocious Islam of our imaginations, but a progressive, sensuous, intellectually curious culture, that for a number of spine-tingling years, was set to sweep through the whole of Europe.  It is an incredible story, but one that has been systematically written out of history.

 

In July of 711, 7000 Berber tribesman stormed across the strait of Gibraltar, and invaded Europe.  The Muslims then began an incredible process of expansion.  In just four years, they had colonized almost the whole of Spain, and crossed the Pyrenees, and were only halted at Poitiers in France.

 

The Muslims called the country they came to Al-Andalus, the land of the Vandals.  This refers to the Germanic tribe who ruled Spain at the time: the Visigoths.

 

Spanish historians have traditionally seen the Muslim invasion of Spain as a terrible and violent attack – an assault on Christian Europe.

 

In fact, here at the Visigothic site of Recopolis near Madrid, archaeologists have found evidence which offers a rather different explanation.

 

The state of Recopolis at the time that the Muslims were invading was like everywhere else in Iberia:  they found cities in crisis.  Social crisis.  Urban crisis.  The traditional explanation is this idea that when the Arabs came, the society collapsed, and the city collapses, it’s not true, it’s not true.  The collapse of the city started during the Visigothic period.

 

If you read the orthodox Spanish histories, then, you’ll learn that predatory Muslim hoards forcibly appropriated Visigothic Spain.  And there certainly were some invasion battles.  But, at many places, like here at Recopolis, it seems that the newcomers were actually welcomed with open arms.  We even have treaties where the Visigoths enthusiastically hand over their land in return for effective Muslim protection.”

 

When the Moors Ruled in Europe

presented by: Bettany Hughes

Producer: Rowan Deacon

Director: Timothy Copestake

Wildfire Television

through BBC Channel 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

712

 

“A great inundation of waters.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 73

 

 

 “Many waters.”

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 138

 

 

 

 713

 

“Great drought.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

714

 15th July

 

“In the night, there appeared shooting stars in the north-west.  Some were as large as a jug; others large as a bushel: they moved across the north pole.  The number of the smaller ones could not be counted.  The stars of the sky were in tremendous agitation.  It was only until the morning when the phenomenon ceased.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

714

 

“Night was as bright as day.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

714

 

“A bright night in the autumn.”

 

The Annals of Tigernach

 

 

 

717

 

“When Oumaros had become master of the Arabs, he ordered Masalmas to turn back, and, on 15 August, the Hagarenes moved off in great shame.  As their fleet sailed away, a God-sent storm fell upon them and scattered them through the intercession of the Mother of God.  Some sank by Prokonesos and the other islands, others by Apostropha and the adjoining shores.  The remainder were going through the Aegean Sea when a terrible calamity came over them; for a fiery hail fell upon them and brought the sea-water to a boil, and as the pitch of their keels dissolved, their ships sank in the deep, crews and all.  Only ten of them escaped, and this by God's providence, so as to proclaim both to us and to the Arabs the divine prodigies they had experienced. Some of our men chanced upon them and were able to seize five of them, while the other five escaped to Syria to announce God's mighty deeds. 

 

In the same year, after a violent earthquake had occurred in Syria, Oumar banned the use of wine in cities and set about forcing the Christians to become converted: those that converted he exempted from tax, while those that refused to do so he killed and so produced many martyrs.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

718

 

“A shower of honey rained on Othan Bec, a shower of silver upon Othan Mór, a shower of blood upon the foss of Laigin. Hence Niall Frosach son of Fergal, who was born at that time, is so named.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

719

 

“A rainy summer.  A great sea-flood in the month of October.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

720

 

“An earthquake in October.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

720

 

“A wonderful hot summer occurred, the drought and heat of which destroyed trees, herbs, and animals; and in the month of September of the same year the unexpected flood took place which breached the church of Llancarvan and many of the houses, and drowned an infinity of the cattle and the sheep, causing a very great loss; and the same in many other places.  And at the same time a prodigious flood in the Severn sea broke the embankments; and a great deal of the low land on the sea shore in Glamorganshire, Monmouthshire, and Somersetshire, was lost, and great the losses thereby.”

 

Brut Y Tywysogion

Chronicle Of The Princes

 

 

 

722

 

“There was great fertility/abundance.”

   “Fuit fertilitas magna.”

 

Annales Petaviani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 7

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 34

 

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 34

 

 

Lamberti Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 34

 

 

 

 “Great fertility/abundance.”

   “Magna fertilitas.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 24

 

 

Annales Nazariani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 25

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 73

 

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 138

 

 

 

 722

 

“In Campania, Italy, the crops combusted, and barley and other vegetables fell from the sky like rain.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 221

 

 

 

725

 

“In the summer season of the same year, indiction 9, a vapour as from a fiery furnace boiled up for a few days from the depth of the sea between the islands of Thera and Therasia.  As it gradually became thicker and filled with stones because of the heat of the burning fire, all the smoke took on a fiery appearance.  Then, on account of the density of the earthy substance, pumice stones as big as hills were thrown up against all of Asia Minor, Lesbos, Abydos, and coastal Macedonia, so that the entire surface of that sea was filled with floating pumice.  In the midst of so great a fire an island that had not previously existed was formed and joined to the Sacred Island, as it is called, for, just as the aforementioned islands Thera and Therasia had once been thrown up, so was this one, too.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

729

 

“This year appeared the comet-star.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

729

 

“Comets appeared.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 34

 

 

“Comet stars appeared.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 34

 

 

Lamberti Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 34

 

 

 

 729

 

“In the year of our Lord 729, two comets appeared about the sun, to the great terror of the beholders.  One of them went before the sun in the morning at his rising, the other followed him when he set in the evening, as it were presaging dire disaster to both east and west; or without doubt one was the forerunner of the day, and the other of the night, to signify that mortals were threatened with calamities at both times.  They carried their flaming brands towards the north, as it were ready to kindle a conflagration.

 

They appeared in January, and continued nearly a fortnight.  At which time a grievous blight fell upon Gaul, in that it was laid waste by the Saracens with cruel bloodshed; but not long after in that country they received the due reward of their unbelief.”

 

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 

729

 

“An earthquake on the sixth of the Ides (8th) of February.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

730

 

“The Nihon Shukyo Fuzokushi gives an old tradition explaining the names of three Buddhist temples in Shimosa province:

 

“In 730 AD, when the priest Shaku-myo, by order of the Emperor, prayed for rain, he had a splendid success, and at the same time a dragon appeared in the air, who cut his own body into three parts and died.

 

The middle part fell in Imba district, where the temple called Ryufukuji, or "Shrine of the Dragon's Belly", is to be found.  The tail came down in Katori district (also in Shimosa), and caused the shrine Ryubiji ("Temple of the Dragon's Tail") to be built, while the head descended on the spot where the aforesaid priest had been praying and where still nowadays the name of the sanctuary - Ryukakuji, or "Temple of the Dragon's Horn" (at Sakai village, Shimohabu district) reminds the believers of the dragon of old.”

 

The Dragon in China and Japan

page 177

 

 

 

730

  June 30 – July 9

 

“There was a comet in Woo Chay.  On the day Kwei Yew (July 9) the comet was in S. D. Peih and Maou.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 43

 

“S. D. Peih determined by a, g, d, e Tauri.

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.

Woo Chay, a, b, g Aurigæ and b Tauri.”

 

 

 

733/734

 

“A fiery sign that gave forth light appeared in the sky.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

734

 

“A huge dragon was seen, with great thunder after it, at the end of autumn.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

This is one of only two references to Dragons in The Annals of Ulster, which spans from 431 to 1540

 

 

 

737

 

“An excessive drought rendered the land unfruitful.”

 

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 

739

 

“In the 26th year of the same epoch [Kae Yuen], the 3rd moon, day Ping Tsze, there was a comet in Tsze Kung.  It was bright.  It passed through Pih Tow Kwei.  After 10 days, being obscured by clouds, it was no more seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 44

 

“Pih Tow Kwei, the square in Ursa Major.”

 

 

 

739

  April 12

 

“An earthquake in Íle.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

739/740

 

“Edessa was flooded by its stream on the 28th of the month Peritios.  In the same year a violent and fearful earthquake occurred at Constantinople on 26 October, indiction 9, a Wednesday, in the 8th hour.  Many churches and monasteries collapsed and many people died.  There also fell down the statue of Constantine the Great that stood above the gate of Atalos as well as that of Atalos himself, the statue of Arkadios that stood on the column of the Xerolophos, and the statue of Theodosios the Great above the Golden Gate; furthermore, the land walls of the City, many towns and villages in Thrace, Nicomedia in Bithynia, Prainetos, and Nicaea, where only one church was spared.  In some places the sea withdrew from its proper boundaries.  The quakes continued for twelve months.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

740

 

“Signs appeared in the sun, moon, and stars.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 221

 

741

 

“Signs appeared in the sun, moon, and the stars, and the most sacred ceremony ("ordo") of Easter was disturbed.”

 

Annales Mettenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 327

 

 

 

741

 

“A great drought came upon the country.”

 

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 

741/742

 

“There was much drought and earthquakes occurred in several places so that mountains were joined to one another in the desert of Saba and villages were swallowed up by the earth.  …  In the month of June a sign appeared in the sky to the north.

 

“In this year a sign appeared in the north and in some places dust fell down from heaven.  There was also an earthquake at the Caspian Gates.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

743

 

“Fiery visions were seen in the sky on the first of January, such as no men of that age had ever beheld.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

742 + 744

 

“In A.D.  742 orders were given to the great general Kau Lih-sz', to send the five sacred portraits and have them placed in the church, and a gift of a hundred pieces of silk accompanied these pictures of intelligence.  Although the dragon's beard was then remote, their bows and swords were still within reach; while the solar horns sent forth their rays, and celestial visages seemed close at hand. 

 

In A.D.  744 the priest Kih-ho, in the kingdom of Syria, looking toward the star, was attracted by its transforming influence, and observing the sun, came to pay court to the most honorable.”

 

Nestorian Tablet: Eulogizing the Propagation of the Illustrious Religion in China, with a Preface, composed by a priest of the Syriac Church, 781 A.D.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/eastasia/781nestorian.asp

 

“This remarkable record of the fact that Christianity flourished in medieval China is a huge stone about ten feet high. Carven dragons and a cross adorn its summit, and its main shaft is completely covered with some two thousand Chinese characters.”

 

 

In this edition, the Star is interpreted as meaning China, and the Sun is the Emperor.  But, what if the priest in 744 saw signs in the actual sky, to lead him to pay a visit?

 

 

 

743/744

 

“In this year a great comet appeared in Syria.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

Is this is the same event as was recorded (possibly) in the Nestorian tablet in China, in that both saw a “star” in the East? (Syria being East of constantinople – well South-East…)

 

 

 

744

 

“Ashes fell from heaven.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 221

 

no date – no context

 

 

 

744

 4th April

 

A star as large as the moon fell to the south-east.  After its fall, noise was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

Again – South-East.

This again would align with interpreting the Nestorian tablet’s entry for 744 as being a star in the sky instead of a metphorical reference to China – in that general direction.

 

 

 

744

 

“The stars went swiftly shooting.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

744

 

“A horrible and wonderful sign was seen in the stars at night.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

745

 

“Dragons were seen in the sky.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

This is one of only two references to Dragons in The Annals of Ulster, which spans from 431 to 1540

 

 

 

746?

 

“In this period very great signs appeared from the month of March to the end of April.  The air was full of dirt and dust to the point that day seemed like night.

 

Then there appeared in the north three columns of fiery clouds [visible] for three days.  These arose and descended.

 

After this there appeared an unknown star, the size of the moon.  Each day it rose in the east and travelled to the west, being visible to people for the entire day.  There were flashes of the stars all night which flew against the Milky Way.

 

After this there was a severe earthquake and, [in places] where the earth was torn asunder, fountains arose, the color of blood.

 

After this there was a huge churning in the Great Sea [the Mediterranean] with waves rising to the heavens one would think, and [seemingly] boiling down to its depths.  Many people and animals near the shores died from the thunderbolts.

 

A fortress which belonged to the children of Ammon which had been built in the midst of the sea was torn from its foundations.  The great tower which had been built with great care by Solomon over a fountain he had discovered in the water collapsed and sank.

 

Following this there was a great famine and a plague accompanied by sore throats which killed 20,000 people a day in Basra.

 

It is said that monkeys in the country of the Madianites became enraged and caused great damage by attacking people and animals.

 

When Caliph Marwan of Damascus, who had moved his capital to Harran, saw all of this he repented, seeing his death before him, and wrote [edicts] to all his realm [urging] repentance.

 

The ground trembled, tears flowed, and everywhere fasts and prayer vigils were undertaken.  For they believed that these numerous strange signs were omens of the coming end of the world.  Indeed, extraordinary marvels occurred.  For example, there was a village at the foot of Mount Tabor which an earthquake moved from its place and transported two miles distant without disturbing any structures and without losing a single chicken.

 

The city of Manbij sank in its place.

 

A third of the city of Constantinople collapsed, while Nicaea was completely demolished.  Moreover, many cities in Bithynia were destroyed.”

Chronicle of Michael the Syrian

page 153

 

 

746.

 

“In this year there was a great earthquake in Palestine, by the Jordan and in all of Syria on 18 January, in the 4th hour.  Numberless multitudes perished, churches and monasteries collapsed, especially those in the desert of the Holy City.

 

In the same year a pestilence that had started in Sicily and Calabria travelled like a spreading fire all through the 14th indiction to Monobasia, Hellas, and the adjoining islands, thus scourging in advance the impious Constantine and restraining his fury against the Church and the holy icons, even though he remained unrepentant like Pharaoh of old.  This disease of the bubonic plague spread to the Imperial City in the 15th indiction. 

 

All of a sudden, without visible cause, there appeared many oily crosslets upon men's garments, on the altar cloths of churches, and on hangings.  The mysteriousness of this presage inspired great sorrow and despondency among the people.  Then God's wrath started destroying not only the inhabitants of the City, but also those of all its outskirts. 

 

Many men had hallucinations and, being in ecstasy, imagined to be in the company of certain strangers of terrible aspect who, as it were, addressed in friendly fashion those they met and conversed with them.  Taking note of their conversation, they later reported it.  They also saw the same men entering houses, killing some of the inmates, and wounding others with the sword.  Most of what they said came to pass just as they had seen it. 

 

In the spring of the 1st indiction the plague intensified and in the summer it flared up all at once so that entire households were completely shut up and there was no one to bury the dead.  Because of extreme necessity a way was devised of placing planks upon animals saddled with four paniers each and so removing the dead or piling them likewise one upon the other in carts.  When all the urban and suburban cemeteries had been filled as well as empty cisterns and ditches, and many vineyards had been dug up and even the orchards within the old walls to make room for the burial of human bodies, only then was the need satisfied.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

747

 

“Snow of unusual depth so that nearly all the cattle of the whole of Ireland perished, and the world afterwards was parched by unusual drought.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

747

 

“There were seen stars falling from heaven, so that all who beheld them thought that the end of the world was at hand.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

In the paper Solar activity around AD 775 from aurorae and radiocarbon:

this event is dated to 744, not 747

 

 

 

747

 

“Riding on a Flaming Tigress, Buddhist saint Padmasambhava (“Born From A Lotus”), taking the form of Dorje Drolö (“Insanely Wrathful”) (the Sanskrit name of which is Guru Vajra = Guru “diamond” or Guru “lightning-bolt”), makes his way to Bhutan and arrives at Taktsang cave (“Tigress Lair”), which is found near the top of a kilometer-high rock-peak, in the Paro Valley of Bhutan (Druk Yul = “Land of the Thunder Dragon”).”

 

 

https://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Guru_Dorje_Drol%C3%B6

Painting of Dorje Drolö  -  Khenpo Namdrol

 

 

This figure, Padmasambhava, is depicted with a lightning bolt in hand, both in painting and in sculpture.  Buddhism is adopted in Bhutan in earnest after this.

Might Bhutan, being on a ridge and plate-boundary, be prone to harboring unusual plasma formations, like at the Hessdalen valley, or like where Travis Walton was working?  Paro Valley is not the highest point in Bhutan though…  Walton mentions climbing a ridge up to “Rim Road”.  This is Rim Road:

 

 

Rim Road is on the Mongollon Rim – a rim on a greater ridge between the Colorado Plateau and the lower lands to the south:

 

So, as with the Flaming Tigress in Bhutan, Travis Walton’s plasma encounter occurred at the ridge between two areas of differing elevation (on the ridge bordering a plateau – at the Colorado and Tibetan plateaus).  It is a ridge on a ridge.

Hessdalen doesn’t share this feature.  Also, this is isn’t the highest point on the Colorado plateau in the area.

 

 

 

 

 

748

 

“Ships with their crews were seen in the air above Cluain Moccu Nóis.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

748/749

 

“There was an earthquake and terrible destruction in Syria, as a result of which some cities were entirely destroyed, others partially so, while others slid down entire, with their walls and houses, from positions on mountains to low-lying plains, a distance of six miles or thereabout.  Eyewitnesses affirmed that the ground in Mesopotamia was split along two miles and that out of the chasm was thrown up a different soil, very white and sandy, in the midst of which, they said, there came up an animal like a mule, quite spotless, that spoke in a human voice and announced the incursion of a certain nation from the desert against the Arabs, which indeed came to pass.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

749?

 

“The earthquake of January 18, 749 [?], is thought to be one of the strongest ever to hit the Middle East.  Till recently, researchers knew about the quake only from historical sources.  A Coptic priest from Alexandria reported that support beams in houses in Egypt had shifted; a Syrian priest wrote that a village in the region of Mount Tavor had moved a distance of four miles; while other sources spoke of huge tidal waves in the Mediterranean Sea, of Damascus shaking for a few days, and of smaller cities and towns being swallowed up in the earth.

 

The most detailed descriptions came from Jerusalem, where thousands were reported dead, where palaces and churches collapsed, and where the Al-Aqsa Mosque suffered serious damage.

 

The historical sources gave the geologists some idea of the intensity of the quake, and its epicenter, but no more than that.  Findings during an archaeological dig in Tiberias a year ago, however, allowed geologists to analyze the quake using modern research techniques, as if it had occurred just yesterday.

 

The findings of the research, conducted by Dr. Shmuel Marco of Tel Aviv University and Dr. Moshe Hartal of the Antiquities Authority, are now being published.  The study stipulates the intensity of the quake and its epicenter; and the data is helping researchers predict the maximum strength of the next quake that will shake the region, as well as where it is likely to hit.

 

The rare findings were discovered last summer.  During the course of a dig designed to facilitate the expansion of the Galei Kinneret Hotel, Hartal noticed a mysterious phenomenon: Alongside a layer of earth from the time of the Umayyad era (638-750), and at the same depth, the archaeologists found a layer of earth from the Ancient Roman era (37 B.C.E.-132).

 

"I encountered a situation  for which I had no explanation - two layers of earth from hundreds of years apart lying side by side," says Hartal.  "I was simply dumbfounded."

 

The mystery was solved only when geologists who arrived at the site determined that an earthquake of immense intensity had raised the Roman era layer of earth to the same level as the layer of earth from the Umayyad era.  What Hartal had stumbled across was a rare geological find - an active fault line from 749 dividing two expanses of land that had moved during an earthquake.”

 

The Big One Is Coming

Amiram Barkat

Haaretz 07.08.2003

 

 

 

749

 

“At about forty miles from the border of the Langobards, a great sign appeared in the sky in one night, like a ball of fire on the south side, turning from the coasts of Gaul into the parts of the Langobards.”

 

Chronicon Salertnianum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 472

 

 

 

 750

 

“At that time happened a fearful sight and a strange portent resulting from an appearance in the sky.  It began about candle-lighting and was visible during the whole night, causing surprise and great fear in all the beholders.  For it seemed to them as though all the stars left their appointed places in the heavens, and descended towards the earth.  But when they came near the ground, they were one and all suddenly dissipated without doing any damage whatever.  Many assert that this astonishing sight was witnessed throughout the whole world.”

 

Saint Nikephoros I

Writer and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

(758-829)

 

 

 

752

 

“A dark sun.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

753

 

“The colour of blood upon the moon in this year.”

 

The Annals of Tigernach

 

Most likely referring to the same event as above.

 

 

 

753

 

“There was an earthquake so terrible, that some cities were destroyed wholesale, while others were undermined in part.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 222

 

 

 

756

 

“There was great tribulation by reason of pestilence, which continued almost two years, divers grievous sicknesses raging, but more especially the disease of dysentery.”

 

Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England

 

 

 

755/756

 

“In this year, on 9 March, there occurred a considerable earthquake in Palestine and Syria.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

 

Honestly, I can’t make heads or tails out of these earthquake dates, throughout this period.

There seems to be multiple distinct large earthquakes, on separate occasions, but, also, at the same time, modern scholarship seems to believe the big one in Palestine happened in 749, contradicting the clear 18 January 746 dating by Theophanes in my edition (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997).

???

The Ha-Aretz article above seems to have conflated multiple earthquakes.  They mention mount Tavor beng moved wholesale – that’s in 746, then the discovery they report is of the layer of sediment moving over another layer – and that is clearly in 749.

???

What is clear is that the 739/740 earthquake is distinct from the 745/746 earthquake, and these are distinct from the 748/749 earthquake, and the 755 quake is also distinct, because within Theophanes, they are reported years apart, within the same book, right?  Within the same chronicle! 

???

On top of all this, the time of year given by Michael (“after March and April”) does not jive at all with Theophanes’ “18 January”.  Are these two separate events?

???

 

My edition of Theophanes has a note, concerning the plague that followed the big quake in Palestine:

 

“AD 747/8. This is the date given for the plague in Kleinchronik, 2. 4 (Schreiner, i. 47).”

 

So, how in the world can the big Palestine quake be dated to 749?

The big one, 18 January of some year, must have been 746.

I don’t know where this 749 business comes from, which I found in modern articles about the “749 Galilee earthquake”.

 

The Global Significant Earthquake Database lists an entry for an earthquake in Israel on the 18th of January, 746!

So, where in the world does this “749 Galilee earthquake” date come from???

This 746 date, from the Earthquake Database, must have been taken directly from Theophanes.

I’m sticking with Theophanes.

 

Both the 746 and the 749 quakes were severe and notable, and so, it seems, modern scholarship lumped them together.  Perhaps they assumE the dates are so close, it must have just been an error.

 

After all this, reading the wicki on the “749 Galilee earthquake”, I am even more confused.

Dates shift by one year, so that 746 becomes 747 and 749 becomes 750, among other issues.

I’m sticking with 746 for the big one for now.

 

 

 

 

756

 

“Haistulphus, king of the Langobards, while he was practicing hunting in a certain forest, was struck by divine vengeance, and was cast to the ground from his horse, and lost his life on the third day.”

 

Annales Mettenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 333

 

 

 

757

 19th May

 

“In the middle of the night, there appeared a large star of a reddish-yellow color, around 100 degrees long: its light illuminated the ground; it fell in the camp of the rebels besieging Nan-yang.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

757

 3rd December

 

“There appeared a shooting star, the size of a bushel, which fell to the north-east.  She was about 10 degrees long, traveling with a coiling motion like a serpent, while ejecting shards of fire from all sides.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

759/760

 

“A very bright comet appeared for ten days in the east, and another twenty-one days in the west.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

759

 

“Famine and a great mast-crop.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

760

  May 16 –   ~July 5

 

“There was a comet in the east.  Its place was between S. D. Lew and Wei.  Its colour was white.  It was 4 cubits in length.  It went rapidly to the east.  It passed through S. D. Maou, Peih, Tsuy He, Tsan, and Tung Tsin, to Kwei, Lew, and Heen Yuen.  It passed to the west of Yew Chih Fa.  It was seen altogether for about 50 days.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 44

 

“S. D. Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis.

Wei determined by the three stars in Musca.

Maou determined by the Pleiades.

Peih determined by a, g, d, e, &c. Tauri.

Tsuy He, or Tsuy, determined by l and stars in head of Orion.

Tsan determined by a, b, g, d Orionis.

Kwei determined by g, d, h, q Cancri.

Lew determined by d, &c. Hydræ.

Tsing determined by g, e, l, m Geminorum.

Heen Yuen, a Leonis and others in Leo and Leo Minor.

Yew Chih Fa, b Virginis.”

 

 

 

760

  May 15 – June/July

 

“In the intercalary moon of the same year, on the day Sin Yew, the 1st day of the moon, a comet was seen in the west.  It was 10 cubits in length.  When the 5th moon (June/July) commenced it had disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 44

 

“The intercalary moon appears to have been that which preceded the 5th moon.

The day Sin Yew will, therefore, be May 15, and the 5th moon June or July.”

 

 

 

761

 

“A great snowfall, and a dark moon.”

 

“A bright night in autumn.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

762

 

“A great frost subdues Gallias, Illyricum and Thrace, with many olive and fig trees decomposed by the withering frost; with the buds for harvest also withering away; and so the year was then overtaken by a heavy grievous famine depressing the regions mentioned, so that many would perish for lack of bread.”

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 294

 

 

 

762

 

“Starting in early October, there was very bitter cold, not only in our land, but even more so to the east, the north, and the west, so that on the north coast of the Pontos to a distance of 100 miles the sea froze from the cold to a depth of thirty cubits.  The same happened from Zigchia to the Danube, including the river Kouphis, the Danastris, the Danapris, and Nekropelai, and the rest of the coast as far as Mesembria and Medeia.

 

All this ice was snowed upon and grew by another twenty cubits, so that the sea became indistinguishable from land: upon this ice wild men and tame animals could walk from the direction of Chazaria, Bulgaria, and other adjoining countries.  In the month of February of the same 2nd indiction this ice was, by God's command, split up into many different mountain-like sections which were carried down by the force of the winds to Daphnousia and Hieron and, by way of the Straits, reached the City and filled the whole coast as far as the Propontis, the islands, and Abydos.

 

Of this I was myself an eyewitness, for I climbed on one of those [icebergs] and played on it together with some thirty boys of the same age.  Some of my wild and tame animals also died.  Anyone who so wished could walk without hindrance as on dry land from Sophianai to the City and from Chrysopolis to St Mamas and to Galata.

 

One of the icebergs struck the jetty of the Acropolis and crushed it.  Another huge one struck the wall and shook it greatly so that the houses on the inside partook of the quake.  It then broke into three pieces and ringed the City from the Mangana to the Bosporus, rising in height above the walls.  All the inhabitants of the City, men, women, and children, ceaselessly watched these things and would return home with lamentation and tears, not knowing what to say. 

 

In the same year, in the month of March the stars were seen falling from heaven all at once, so that all the observers thought it was the end of the present world.  Then there was a great drought, so much so that sources dried up.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

763

 

“A great snowfall which lasted almost three months.  A great scarcity, and famine.  An abnormally great drought.  A bloody flux throughout Ireland.  Three showers fell in Crích Muiredaig in Inis Eogain, i.e. a shower of pure silver, a shower of wheat, and a shower of honey.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

“Great frost from Kalends December (1st of December) up to February.

 

The stars were seen to suddenly fall from heaven, terrifying everybody, so that they thought the end of the world was imminent.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 222

 

 

 

“There was a very severe and rough winter, so that none of the winters past could be compared with the brutality of this coldness.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 145

 

 

 

“A powerful winter.”

 

Annales Iuvavenses Minores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 88

 

 

 

“Winter was great.”

 

Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 92

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Breves

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 64

 

 

 

“A formidable winter.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

Annales Laurissenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 144

 

 

Annales Mettenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 334

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 557

 

 

 

“A strong and formidable winter occurred.”

 

Annalium Tilianorum Pars Altera

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 219

 

 

 “A great and hard winter.”

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 139

 

 

 

 764

 

“There was a great frost beginning  19. Kalends January (14th of December)  and continued up to  17. Kalends April (16th of March).”

 

Annales Sancti Amandi

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 10

 

 

Annalium Petaviani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 11

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Baluzii

Part one Taken from the Annalibus Sancti Amandi

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 63

 

 

 

“This year a formidable and unusually long winter occurred.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 347

 

 

 

“Great frost.”

 

Annales Laubacensium

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 10

 

 

“A great and hard winter.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 28

 

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 28

 

 

Annales Nazariani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 29

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 74

 

 

 “This winter was hard.”

 

Annales Breves Fuldenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 237

 

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 36

 

 

Annales Fuldenses Antiqui

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 116

 

 

 

“A great winter.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 36

 

 

 “It was the hardest winter.”

 

Lamberti Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 36

 

 

 

764

 

“A horrible and wonderful sign was seen in the stars at night.  A shortage of bread.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

764

 4th July

 

“A star - a bad omen, fell in the capital district Fen-tcheou (Thai-yonen-fou of Chan-si).”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

30th December

 

“From the 2nd hour of the night until the morning, there was a shower of shooting stars.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

765

  4th January

 

“On Saturday, the fourth day of January, stars were seen falling as it were from heaven.”

 

Dionysius Patriarcha

also known as Dionysius of Tel Mahre

Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 818 until his death in 845.

Cited within:

Bibliotheca Orientalis

Giuseppe Simone Assemani

1721

 

 

 

766

 

“A great winter.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

This is a distinct report, because the same annal tells of the 763 winter.

 

 

 

767

  January 12

 

“There was a comet in Kwa Chaou.  It was about a cubit in length.  After 20 days it disappeared.  It passed over Hwan Chay.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 44, 45

 

“Kwa Chaou, a, b, g, &c. Delphini.

Hwan Chay, e, i, &c. Ophiuchi”

 

 

 

768

 

“An earthquake and famine; and a leprous disease attacked many.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

770

 

“In the 5th year of the same epoch [Ta Leih], the 4th moon, day Ke Wei, there was a comet in Woo Chay. Its luminous envelope appeared much disordered.  It was about 30 cubits in length.  In the 5th moon, day Ke Maou (June 15), the comet was seen in the north.  Its colour was white.  On the day Kwei Wei (June 19) it went to the east, and approached the middle star of Pa Kuh.  In the 6th moon, day Kwei Maou (July 9), it came near San Kung.  On the day Ke Wei (July 25) it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 45

 

“San Kung, three stars near head of Asterion.

Pa Kuh, d, x Aurigæ.”

 

 

 

771

 

“The fair of the clapping of hands, so called because terrific and horrible signs appeared at the time, which were like unto the signs of the day of judgment, namely, great thunder and lightning, so that it was insufferable to all to hear the one and see the other.

 

Fear and horror seized the men of Ireland, so that their religious seniors ordered them to make two fasts, together with fervent prayer, and one meal between them, to protect and save them from a pestilence, precisely at Michaelmas.  Hence came the Lamhchomart, which was called the Fire from heaven.”

 

Annals of the Four Masters

Book 1

 

The Annals of Ulster dates this to 771, whereas the Annals of the Four Masters dates this to 767.

Dates from the Annals from Ulster seem to be significantly more reliable.

 

 

 

771

 

 “In the second year of his reign, [49th emperor of Japan, Koonin] there happened a storm of thunder and lightning dreadful beyond expression.  It rained fire from Heaven, like stars, and the air was filled with a frightful noise.”

 

Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

Communicated by Edward C. Herrick, Rec. Sec. of the Conn. Acad.

Read before the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, April 28, 1840; and since revised.

Printed in The American Journal of Science and Arts

Volume 39, 1840

page 350

 

Citing:

History of Japan

Engelbert Kamfer, M.D., translated by J. G. Scheuchzer

London, 1728

folio, Volume 1, page 162

 

 

 

771

 2nd November

 

“There appeared in the west a shooting star as large as a bushel.  Its light illuminated the ground.  It had a tail that glistened like pearls, around 50 degrees long … and it disappeared.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

772

 

“Unaccustomed drought and heat of the sun so that nearly all bread-grain failed.  Abundance of oak-mast afterwards.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

772

 

“A heatwave of long duration in the summer, with clear skies, nor was there any moisture in the springs themselves; all the rivers and streams were very much parched and dusty.

 

And now the royal camp was severely worn out, the thirst being increased by the heat, but by the power of the Almighty, to whom it pleased to subvert a profane place of worship into a just one; as, at about the middle of the day, suddenly, through the hollows of a brook, on dry ground, next to the army, water broke out sufficient for the army.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Libri Quinque

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 228

 

“to whom it pleased to subvert a profane place of worship into a just one” =

“Cui placuit fani subversio iusta profani”

?

3 days prior, Charles had here destroyed a pillar-shaped work of the Saxons worshipped as “Irminsul”

 

 

 

 

 

 

773

  January 17

 

“There was a tailed star in the lower part of S. D. Тsan.  The tail of this comet extended across the heavens from the star Tang in S. D. Тsan.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 45

 

“S. D. Тsan determined by a and other stars in Orion.

Tang, a star in Orion not identified.”

 

 

 

774

 

“This year also appeared in the heavens a red crucifix, after sunset; …  and wonderful serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

776

 

“The whole winter in summer, i.e. heavy rain and windstorm.  The bloody flux; also many other diseases—almost a mortality. A great murrain of cows.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

776

 

“Fiery and terrible signs were seen in the heavens after the setting of the sun.  And serpents, too, were seen in Sussex, to the great wonder of the people, as if they rose in abundance out of the earth.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

776

 

“At night, in the eastern direction above the Moon there were more than ten streaks (dao) of white vapour (baiqi).  They were like unspun silk.  They penetrated (guan) [the star groups] Wuche (in Auriga), Dongjing (in Gemini), Yugui (in Cancer), Zui and Shen (both in Orion), Bi (in Taurus), Liu (in Hydra), and Xuanyuan (in Leo).  After the third watch (i.e., after about 1:30 a.m), they disappeared.”

 

Jiu Tangshu (“Old History of the Tang Dynasty”)

Liu Xu (ed.) Jiutangshu, Beijing, 1975 (in Chinese)

v. 36, p. 1328

 

Sourced from:

Do the Chinese astronomical records dated AD 776 January 12/13 describe an auroral display or a lunar halo? A critical re­examination

F. Richard Stephenson

Department of physics, Durham

 

 

 

776

 

“... ... when they had prepared to resume battle, the glory of God appeared manifestly above the house of the church, which was below the castle itself, while many were watching, both Christians and Pagans.

 

For two shields appeared above the aforesaid hall, with flaming blood-red colour, and agitating with certain movements, as if in battle.

 

Therefore the Pagans, on seeing this sign, being filled with fear and dread, soon turned to flight, and came into such madness, so that with their swords already drawn, they were stabbing each other [by accident, as they were fleeing].

 

But the more they fled, being horribly terrified, the more the Christians were encouraged, praising the Almighty Lord, who saves those who hope in him.”

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 558

 

 

 

777

 

“With the calm of the new wind of spring, when the Horrid winter had already passed, the king arrived at Noviomagum and observed the ceremonies of Easter.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Libri Quinque

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 233

 

 

 

777

 

“The bloody flux; the great murrain of cows.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

778

 

“The murrain of cows did not cease, and there was a mortality of men from want.  The smallpox throughout Ireland.  A great windstorm at the end of autumn.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

778

 

“In the city of Tarvisio, Italy, and in nearby cities, there was a great earthquake, so that many building and even churches collapsed by this earthquake, with the body-count so high that in one village 48 perished in a single night.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

XI

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 31

 

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 296

 

 

 

779

 

“There was a great famine and mortality in Francia.”

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 296

 

 

Annales Laureshamenses

XII

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 31

 

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 40

 

 

Annales Augienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 67

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Breves

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 64

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 75

 

 

 

778

782

 

“Ard Macha and Magh Eo were burned by lightning on Saturday night, precisely on the 2nd of August.  That night was terrible with thunder, lightning, and wind storms; and it was on this night the monastery of Cluain Bronaigh Clonbroney was destroyed.”

 

Annals of the Four Masters

Book 1

 

Dates from these annals have been consistently early by 3-5 years, in these earlier time-frames, so it is probably in 782, equivalent to the next entry:

 

782

 

“Terrible lightning (?) throughout Saturday night—and thunder—on the 2nd of August, and a very violent windstorm destroyed the monastery of Cluain Brónaig.  The scamach was prevalent.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

783

 

“There was a heatwave so violently hot, that many people perished from the heat.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

XVI

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 32

 

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 297

 

 

 

784

 

“There was a formidable inundation of waters.”

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 297

 

 

Annales Laureshamenses

XVII

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 32

 

 

“There was a excessive inundation of waters.”

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 560

 

 

Annales Laurissenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 166

 

 

 

784

 

“And when he had encamped in that place which is called Huculbi, having pitched his camp upon the river, he saw that he could not pass into the northerly parts of Saxony, as he had determined, on account of the great inundation of water, which had occurred suddenly from continuous rains.

 

 

And as the harshness of winter prevented him from advancing further than that of the flooding of waters, he retired to his winter camp at Aeresburgum.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 167

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 560

 

Not the full wording.

In this chronicle, the date is 785 instead of 784.

 

 

“The harshness of winter barred [passage to the north], and the coursing cataracts of rain were violently inundative.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Liber primus explicit Incipit secundus

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 240

 

Same context as previous passage.

 

 

 

 785

 

“A pestilence called scamach.  A great windstorm in January.  An inundation in Dairinis.  A horrible vision in Cluain Moccu Nóis, and great penance done throughout Ireland.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

785

 

“When this disastrous winter, deadly to that nation, had finally come to an end, and the breath of Spring with a pleasant breeze adorned the fields with flowers, a public meeting was held in Padarbrunnon.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Liber primus explicit Incipit secundus

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 240

 

 

 

786

 

“In that year, a sign was sent from heaven by God onto the earth, and there was great terror.”

 

Annales Petaviani

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

 “A multitude of signs appeared, among which the sign of the cross appeared frequently on garments; and it is said that blood flowed from both Heaven and Earth.”

 

Annales Laurissenses Minores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 118

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 349

 

In this annal, it is dated to 781!

Same exact wording.

Does this bring into quesiton the validity of the dates in the Annals of Fulda?

 

 

 

 “In the month of December there appeared terrible sword-edges in heaven such as had never previously appeared to our people, in fact the sign of the cross also appeared on people's clothing, and a few people said they saw blood raining, inducing sudden great panic and fear in the people, and a great mortality followed this.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

XVIIII

Codex Laureshamensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 33

 

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 298

 

 

 

 “Many signs are reported to have appeared; for the sign of the cross appeared in the garments of men, and blood flowed from the earth and from heaven; and many other signs appeared, from which a great panic and fear fell on the people wholeheartedly, so much so that they made amends.

 

And six days before christmas there appeared immense thunder and lightning, so that it shook the churches in Wildi, and it was heard throughout almost all of Franciam, and many people were slain; the birds of the heavens were also killed by the thunder.

 

And the bow of the sky appeared in the clouds by night.

 

And afterwards there was a very great mortality.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

Fragmentum Annalium Chesnii

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 33

 

 

 “The sign of the cross appeared in men's clothing, and blood appeared from heaven and earth.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 38

 

 

Lamberti Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 38

 

 

 

“Blood flowed from heaven and from earth.”

 

Annales Wirziburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 240

 

 

 “Blood flowed from heaven.”

 

Annales Sancti Bonifacii

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 117

 

 

 

“The sign of the cross appeared in people's clothing.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 38

 

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 139

 

 

Annales Flaviniacenses Et Lausonenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 151

 

 

 

790

 

“Famine rises.”

 

Annales Flaviniacenses Et Lausonenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 151

 

 

 

793

 

 “This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament.  These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine and slaughter.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

793

 

“There arose there a very strong famine, both over that people [in the land of Benevento], and over the army that had come on it, so that some were not able to abstain from eating flesh during Lent.

 

Moreover, a formidable famine fell over Burgundia and in some parts of Francia, so that many died of hunger.”

 

Annales Laureshamenses

XXVI

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 35

 

 

Annales Laurissenses Minores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 119

First sentence only.

 

 

 “Moreover, there was a formidable famine in Italia and Burgundia, and in some places in Francia, and in Gothia and Provincia there was also a formidable famine, so that many perished from hunger.”

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 300

 

 

 

795

  (793?)

 

“… some terrible prodigies alarmed the miserable nation of the English.  For fearful lightnings and dragons, blazing in a dreadful manner, were seen to fly through the air, signs which foreshowed a mighty famine, and a terrible slaughter among mankind.  Accordingly, the Danes came on with the Norwegians, and slew in a fearful manner the people of the provinces of Northumberland and Lindisfarne, and destroyed the churches of Christ with their inhabitants.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

797

 

“A drying of the rivers and the sea.”

 

Annales Flaviniacenses Et Lausonenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 151

 

 

 

798

 20th June

 

“A star fell in the north-east.  Its radiance was equal to that of day.  It made a noise like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

798

 

“A great snowfall in which many men and cattle perished.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

800

 

“The day before the Nones of July (6th of July), in an unusual development, a rough frost occurred, and similarly on 7. Ides July  (9th of July), which, however, did not affect the harvest.”

 

Annales Laurissenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 188

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 562

 

 

Annalium Tilianorum Pars Altera

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 223

This source has the second instance at 4 Ides July = July 12th

 

 

 

801

 

“At the second hour of 2 Kalends May (30th of April), an immense earthquake occurred, in which all of Italy is severly shaken.

 

In this quaking, the roof of the basilica of the blessed Apostle Paul, with its beams, fell down in large part, and in some places cities and mountains fell [or: "in alpine cities, their mountains fell"?  "et in quibusdam locis urbes montesque ruerunt"].

 

In the same year certain places around the river Rhine, both in Gaul and Germany, trembled.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 189, 190

 

 

Annalium Tilianorum Pars Altera

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 223

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 352

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 563

 

 

 

 “At the time when Augustus had remained there, April, at the second hour of the night, when everything was shrouded in gloomy darkness, the earth was suddenly excited by a tremendous commotion.

 

It trembled, and the sound emitted was an exceedingly heavy and fearful one, in which heaven's wrath lifted those standing firm, the deepest parts of the world hidden under the great mass, shaking the bowels with a direful impulse.

 

And when a squall-storm had penetrated the hidden caverns and the places of the veins covered under the deep bosom of the earth, the force of the wind could not break out from it, finding ever-wider gaps, it engendered some shattering waves in the ground below.

 

And now at home there had been a whirlpool more terrible than any at sea, with each roof trembling, they were fleeing from the sudden impending downfall of the rooftops.

 

All the walls at the same time sounded in a hideous tumult, the hangings of curled napkins mutter like the puff of sails; meanwhile everything else thin and hard enough blew away with the dust [?"Aut dum quae tenui squalebant pulvere vela"?].  Otherwise, you would not be able to see all the walls trembling.

 

This terror, however, had alarmed all Italy, of which it had destroyed several cities, and the mountains had been torn away from the depths of their roots.

 

Then fell the beams of the venerable temple at Rome, adorned with the pledges of the Apostle Paul.

 

Neither Gaul nor Germany were immune from such a great disaster, the regions around the Rhine were shaken at length by numerous terrifying commotions.

 

Also, a bellowing can be heard from the high mountains, and an offensive noise is rendered, rattles of different sorts, with deadly diseases following suit.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Libellus IIII

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 259, 260

 

 

 

801

 

“A pestilence occurred owing to the mildness of the winter season.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 190

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 563

 

 

 

803

 

“During this winter an earthquake occurred near the palace itself and the neighboring regions, and mortality ensued.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 191

 

 

 “An earthquake occurred at the palace of Aquis, and mortality followed.”

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 563

 

 

 “There was an earthquake at Aquis.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 224

 

 

 

803

 

“Violent thunder, accompanied by wind and fire, on the night before St. Patrick's Day, which destroyed many persons, i.e. one thousand and ten in Corcu Baiscinn; and the sea divided the island of Fita into three parts, and covered the land of Fita with sand, that is as much land as would support 12 cows.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

806

 

“A great pestilence broke out in the island of Ireland.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

806

 

“On pridie Nones May (14th of May), luna 14, the sign of the cross appeared on the moon in a marvelous manner, and in the same year, on 13 Kalends September (20th of August), a Sunday, at the 4th hour, a wonderful crown appeared around the sun.”

 

Annales Sancti Maximini Trevirensis

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 212

 

 

 

“The day before the Nones of June (4th of June), luna 14, feria 5, at the first light of dawn, the sign of the cross appeared in the moon in this fashion:”

 

 

Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 103

 

 

 

 “A wonderful crown appeared all around the sun, at the 4th hour of Sunday 3 Kalends September (30th of August), luna 12.”

 

Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 103

 

 

 

807

 

“There appeared sword-edges in the sky of astonishing magnitude on 4 Kalends March (26th of February).”

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 139

 

 

 

807

 

“The moon was turned to the colour of blood.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

807

 

“The greatest mortality occurred in Fulda.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 41

 

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 41

 

 

Lamberti Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 41

 

 

 

808

 

“The mildest of winters caused a pestilence in this time.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 195

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 564

 

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monvmenta Germanniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 224

 

 

 

808

 17th January

 

“There was a shooting star which traversed the sky which had a tail broken like a string of pearls.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

808

 

“Fire from heaven struck down a man in the oratory of Nuadu.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

809

 16th September

 

“In the north-west there appeared a large star that fell toward the south-east.  A noise was heard like rolling thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

809

 

“This year there was a flood of water such as had never been seen before in this land, peaking on 5 Kalends January (28th of December).”

 

Annales Sancti Amandi

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

809

 

“In that year came a great mortality of animals from east, continuing on to the west.”

 

Chronicon Moissiacense

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 309

+

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 258

 

 

 

“On every side, the peace of the present year had brought joy to all the ends of the empire, but certain sad things had befallen many territories: a plague has slain every kind of domesticated animal, no less savage than any enemy.

 

For, the herdsmen were shepherding their happy herds and flocks in the morning, beyond the ploughed green meadows; but by evening, when returning home, no small number returned sick, bearing the signs of a terrible plague, emaciated and close to death.

 

But a greater number lay flat on the field, breathing delicately into the herbage. [?"At maior numerus campi per plana iacebat, qua dulces animas virides efllavit ad herbes."?]

 

And now the carcasses were stinking up the farmyards, and were being pulled out, with each manger requiring much labor to clean; then, when they saw that the animal was going to die, they chose to lay it down with the sword, and, immediately the venom dropped from the wound, revealing an entire body frozen with venom.

 

Noricus bay is said to have been especially afllicted, along with surrounding regions.

 

Moreover, the vines have become barren in this season, responding to the labor being expended on them without any reward, the eager farmer's hope is frustrated, while he sees the vineyard lack its juicy crop, and the useless vine runs wild producing flowers in vain, the shoot doesn't spread while tendrils cover the grapes [?"dum pampinus uvas contegit"?], and the broad vine stands empty and useless.

 

In many parts of the kingdom, it's a sad sign that by this unusual [crop failure], Bachus' cups have been lost.

 

With the world still long-mourning for Augusto, this event portends a very sad future.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Libellus IIII

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 263, 264

 

 

 

810

 

“Peace treaties between the emperor and Hemmingus, king of the Danes, on account of the harshness of winter, which closed the route of travel between the two sides ... ... routes closed by the cruelty of the cold.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 198

 

 

 

810

 

“An extreme mortality of cattle in almost all of Europe, as well as a large number of people.”

 

Annales Laurissenses Minores

Codex Fuldensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 121

 

 

 “There was a great mortality of oxen and other animals, and the winter was very hard.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 224

 

 

 

 “A great mortality of animals occurred.”

 

Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 93

 

 

 “The greatest mortality of oxen.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 41

 

 

 

 “There was so great a plague of oxen in that expedition, that there was almost no survivor of so great an army, indeed, all save one perished; and not only there, but also over all the provinces that were subject to the emperor, the mortality of that kind of animals was most terribly rampant.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 198

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 355

 

 

 

810

 

“The moon covered. Mynyw burnt. Death of cattle in Britain.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

810

 

“The moon darkened on Xmas Day; and the Saxons burnt Menevia; and Deganwy burnt by wild fire; and the prodigious mortality among the cattle through the whole island of Britain; and the kingdom of Mona and the kingdom of Dyved impoverished on account of the war between Hywel Vychan and his brother Cynan, in which Hywel conquered Mona.”

 

Brut Y Tywysogion

Chronicle Of The Princes

 

 

 

811

 

“Winter was very hard, lasting until the end of March.”

 

Annales Laurissenses Minores

Codex Fuldensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 121

 

 

 

811

 30th March

 

“Between the 3rd and 5th hour of the evening, the sky was covered, it was cold out.  There was a shooting star, large like 10 bushels, which fell on the boundary between the boroughs of Yen-tcheou and Yun-tching (Chan-toung).

 

The sound was heard in tens of locations.  Wild pheasants cried out.

 

Over the region where it fell, there rose a red vapour, similar to a standing serpent, and longer than 10 feet.  This vapour did not disperse until night.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

812

 

“The fortress of Degannwy is struck by lightning and burnt.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

813

 

“The winter is very hard.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 224

 

 

 

812/813

 

“On the 4th of the same month was seen a comet in the shape of two luminous crescents, now united, now separated so as to assume different forms and take on the likeness of a headless man.”

 

The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor

 

 

 

813

 

“Great distress and severe illnesses.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

814

  February

 

“A star, as large as half a straw-mat, starting from below, rose up.  Its light illuminated the ground.  A number of smaller stars followed it.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

814

 

“It is seen by all: the appearance of a fiery star suddenly swooping down from the sky, drawing a vibrating torch for a long flight, until she fell to the left.”

 

Poetae Saxonis

Annalium De Gestis Caroli Magni Imperatoris

Liber quartus explicit; incipit quintus de vita et obitu eiusdem

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 278

 

There is a lot of hard but interesting passages before and after this bit.

A few lines before, February is mentioned.

 

 

 

814

 

“Terrific thunder and lightning, which destroyed and burnt houses and trees.”

 

Brut Y Tywysogion

Chronicle Of The Princes

 

 

 

814

 

“There was great thunder and it caused many fires.”

 

The Annals of Wales

 

 

 

815

  April

 

“There was a tailed star in Tae Wei.  The tail extended to Heen Yuen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 45

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Heen Yuen, a, g, e, l and others in Leo and Leo Minor.”

 

 

 

815

 

“A most grievous earthquake in the month of August occurred [in constantinople] for five successive days, in which several buildings of the city had fallen, and they testify that the people of other states were pressed under the ruins.

 

But it is said that in Gallia Santones [Sanctonas], in the province of Aquitania, the trembling occurred in September.

 

The Rhine, rising by alpine rains, overflowed beyond the usual.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 202

 

 

 

815

 

“A great wind-storm on the 1st of November.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

817

 

“An eclipse of the sun took place on Nones February (5th of February), the same night a comet star appeared as if it were brandishing a sword.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 356

 

 

 “On Nones February (5th of February), at the second hour of the night, the moon withdrew, and a comet appeared in Agitatoris.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 203

 

 

 “Nones February (5th of February), at the second hour of the night, the moon withdrew; a monstrous comet star appeared in the sign of Agitatoris.”

 

Vita Hludowici Imperatoris

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 621

 

 

 

817

  February 17

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Peih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 45

 

“S. D. Peih determined by a and others in Taurus.”

 

 

 

817

 

“In the month of October, fiery sword-edges appeared in the sky.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

pages 224, 236

 

 

 

817

 26th October

 

“At the start of night, a large shooting star appeared in the middle of the sky.  Its head was like a jug, and its tail like a harbour-boat (with a load of) 2000 bushels, and more than 100 degrees long.  It made a noise like a flock of flying ducks, and glowed like a lit torch. 

 

It passed under the moon and fell toward the east; and soon thereafter, we heard a detonation composed of several strikes.  At the moment when the star fell to earth, there was, 3 times, a great noise as loud as that of a house crumbling down.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

 

817

 

“There was abnormal ice and much snow from the Epiphany to Shrovetide.  The Bóinn and other rivers were crossed dry-footed; lakes likewise.  Herds and hunting-parties were on Loch nEchach, and wild deer were hunted.  The materials for an oratory were afterwards brought by a large company (?) from the lands of Connacht over Upper and Lower Loch Éirne into Tír Ua Crimthainn; and other unusual things were done in the frost and hail.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

820

 

“In that year the intemperate air poured pestilence upon men and livestock, and consumed almost all its crops.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 42

 

 

 “This year, on account of the continual rains and the air being composed of too much moisture, great troubles have occurred.

 

For a pestilence of both men and cattle has spread so far and wide, that scarcely any part of the whole kingdom of the Franks can be found immune or untouched.

 

The grains and vegetables also, being corrupted by the continual rain, not just denying a proper harvest, but any harvest at all - for it was all putrefied ["vel colligi non poterant vel collecta conputrescebant."?].

 

The wine also, of which the harvest was small, was made bitter and unpleasant on account of the want of heat.

 

In some places, however, concerning the inundation of rivers, and the waters on the stagnant level, the autumn sowing was so hindered, that no grain was sown before the warmth of the spring.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 207

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 357

Abridged.

 

 

 

821

 

“The winter was very hard.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

pages 224, 236

 

 

 

821

  February 27

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Yih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 46

 

“S. D. Yih determined by a and others in Crater.”

 

 

 

821

  March 7 - July

 

“In the 2nd moon of the same year, day Ting Maou, there was a comet in Tae Wei, to the west of the star Shang Tseang.  In the 6th moon (July) the comet was in S. D. Maou.  Its length was 10 cubits.  It was visible altogether for 10 days, after which it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 46

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Shang Tseang, s Leonis.

S. D. Maou determined by the Pleiades.”

 

 

 

821

 

“Autumn sowing was impeded in some places by continual rain, and the ensuing winter proved so long and rough, so that not only the smaller rivers and the moderate rivers, but also the very great and famous rivers, namely, the Rhine and Danubius, the Albis and the Seine, and the rest throughout Gaul and Germany - as they were heading for the ocean, the rivers were so strewn with solid ice that they could sustain wagons moving hither and thither for more than thirty days, crossing as if the banks were joined by bridges; the [eventual] release of which brought no small amount of damage to villages along the Rhine.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 208

 

 

 

821

 

“Abnormal ice; the seas, lakes and rivers froze and herds of horses and cattle, and loads, were brought across them.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

From Bede’s Ecclesiastical History:

 

“Ireland is broader than Britain and has a much healthier and milder climate; for the snow scarcely ever lies there above three days: no man makes hay in the summer for winter's provision, or builds stables for his beasts of burden.”

 

 

 

 

821

 May?

 

“There was a large star that fell in the town of Ou (Sou-tcheou-fou­): it made a noise like wings of birds in flight.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

822

 14th June

 

“A shooting star appeared … its brilliance illuminated the ground.  A muffled noise was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

822

 

“Fire from heaven struck the abbot's mansion in Ard Macha and burned it.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

822

 

“In the district of the Thuringians, in a certain place near the river, a large piece of turf, fifty feet long, four feet in breadth, and a foot and a half in height, was cut and ripped out from the earth without hands, and was found at a distance of twenty-five feet from the place in which it was taken.

 

Also in the eastern part of Saxony, which is adjoining to the territories of the Sorabs, in a deserted place near the lake called Arnseo, the earth has swelled like a mound, 7300 feet in length, in a single night, without the help of human hands, it was raised like a rampart.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 208

1 league = 1.5 roman miles = 7290 feet.

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 357

 

 

 

 822

 

“A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Colonienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 98

 

 

 

823

 

“A great winter, as well as a great drought and a formidable famine.”

 

Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 93

 

 

 

823

 23rd September

 

“During the night, there was a large shooting star, the size of several bushels.  It appeared in the north-west … and sank in the south-east.  It passed very near to the moon, threw off a bright light and extinguished while dividing.  When it fell to earth, noise was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

823

 

“Prodigies are reported to have arisen this year, chief of which is an earthquake in the palace of Aquense, and in the territory of Tullense, close to the commercial village, a 12-year old girl abstained from all food for 10 months.

 

And in Saxony, in the district of Firihsazi, 23 villages were burnt by fire from heaven, with lightning descending from the sky on a clear day.

 

And in many countries the grain was destroyed by devastating hail, and in some places, true stones of very great weight were seen to fall together with the hail; the houses also were struck by the sky, and both men and animals are said to have swooned in every direction by the blow of the thunderbolt, contrary to normal, at frequent intervals.

 

There ensued a great pestilence and mortality of men, which in every part of Franciam prevailed with brutality, and consumed an innumerable multitude of people of both sexes and different ages, with the greatest degree of cruelty.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 211, 212

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 358

 

 

“An earthquake occurred.

 

Many towns and houses are destroyed by celestial fire.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 236

 

 

“In Saxony in the region of Virsedi lightning consumed 26 villages.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 42

 

 

 

824

 

“The winter was rough and very lengthy, which extinguished not only the remaining animals, but also some people by the brutality of the cold.

 

 

And he indeed set out for Italy to carry out these things after mid-August; but the Emperor, having prepared for the journey to Britain, delayed his attack until the beginning of autumn, on account the famine which continued to be grievous.

 

 

A few days before the summer solstice, in the territory of Augustodunense, with the air suddenly becoming tempestusous, it is said that a huge fragment of ice had fallen down in a hailstorm, whose length was fifteen feet, breadth seven feet, thickness two feet.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 212, 213

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 358

 

 

 “In the territory of Augustodunum a huge fragment of ice fell together with hail, whose length is said to have been 15 feet, breadth 7 feet, with a thickness of two feet.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 42

 

 

 

824

 

“A great pestilence in the island of Ireland affected the old, the children and the weak; there was great famine and shortage of bread.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

825

 

“Great terror in all Ireland, i.e. from a warning of plague given by Iellán's son of Mumu.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

 

827

 

“The prediction of this [military] disaster were believed to have been seen many times in the sky, in that terrible night's flashing to and fro in the air.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 216

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 359

 

 

 

828

  July 5

 

“There was a comet in Yew She Te, to the south.  Its length was 2 cubits.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 46

 

“Yew She Te, h, u, t in Boötes.”

 

 

 

828

 

“It is reported that in the region of Gascony, on the other side of the river Garonne, in the district Aginense, it rained something like grain-stalks, but a little shorter and having more rounded grains, a portion of which was brought to the emperor at the palace of Aquis.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 218

 

 

 

829

 

“After the winter had ended, during the fast of Lent, a few days before the holy Passover, there was an earthquake at Aquasgrani during the night, a violent wind arose, and, not just poorer houses, but even the basilica of the holy Mother of God, which goes by the name of "Lead-tiled foundation", even this was opened in no small part.”

 

Einhardi Annales

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 218

 

Wind?

Earthquake and… wind?

 

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 360

Abridged

 

 

 

829

  December

 

“A strange star was seen in Shwuy Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 46

 

“Tae Ho, 3rd year, 829 : 10th moon, November.

Shwuy Wei, z, q, o Canis Minoris.”

 

 

 

829

 

“At dawn, on 3 Nones December (3rd of December), a great light appeared in the east.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

834

 11th July

 

“In the middle of the night, there was a shooting star … its color was red, and it left a long train which illuminated the ground, with the likeness of a string of pearls.  Going north … it extinguished.  A noise like thunder was heard.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

834

  October 9 - 18

 

“There was a comet in Tae Wei.  It was about 10 cubits in length. Its course was to the north- west.  It passed over Lang Wei.  On the day Kang Shin (October 18) it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 46

 

“Tae Wei, space between stars in Leo and Virgo.

Lang Wei, Coma Berenices.”

 

 

 

834

 

“There was a formidable inundation of water over the earth.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 226

 

 

 

836

 

“An amazing report: a storm of mortal plague invaded those whom followed Lotharius.”

 

Vita Hludowici Imperatoris

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 642

 

 

 

837

 

“Great and frequent windy tornadoes, and a comet star was seen, pouring out excessive fervor in the east, the sight of it, before a man's gaze, measured 3 cubits.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 226

 

 

 

837

 

“A star comet appeared in the sign of Libra on 3 Ides April (11th of April), and was seen for three nights.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 361

 

 

 

837

  March 22 – April 28

 

“In the 2nd year of the epoch Kae Ching, the 2nd moon, day Ping Woo, there was comet in S. D. Wei.  It was about 7 cubits in length.  It pointed towards Nan Tow.  On the day Woo Shin (March 24) it was to the south-west of S. D. Wei.

 

It was bright, and moved rapidly.

 

On the day Kwei Chow (March 29) its place was in S. D. Heu.  On the day Sin Yew (April 6) its length was about 10 cubits.  It went to the west, gradually pointing to the south.  On the day Jin Seuh (April 7) its place was in Woo Neu: its length was about 20 cubits, and was 3 cubits in breadth.  On the day Kwei Hae (April 8) the tail was still broad.

 

In the 3rd moon, day Kea Tsze (April 9), its place was in Nan Tow.  On the day Yih Chow (April 10) its length was 50 cubits, the end (of the tail) being divided into two branches, the one pointing to S. D. Te, the other covering S. D. Fang.  On the day Ping Yin (April 11) its length was 6 cubits, and was no longer branched.  It pointed to the north.  Its place was in the 7th degree of S. D. Kang.  On the day Ting Maou (April 12) it went to the north-west, pointing to the east.  On the day Ke Sze (April 14) its length was about 80 cubits: its place was then in S. D. Chang.  On the day Kwei Wei (April 28) it was but 3 cubits in length: its place was to the right of Heen Yuen.  After this it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 47

 

“S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.

Heu determined by b Aquarii and another.

Te determined by a, b, g, i Libræ.

Fang determined by b, d, p in Scorpio.

Kang determined by i, k, l, q Virginis.

Chang determined by k, l, m, &c. Hydræ.

Tow, or Nan Tow, determined by d, m, &c. Sagittarii.

Woo Neu, or Neu, determined by e, m, n, &c. Aquarii.

Heen Yuen, a and others in Leo and Leo Minor.”

 

 

 

837

  April 29

 

“A strange star was seen in the lower part of S. D. Tsing, to the east.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 47

 

“S. D. Tsing determined by g, e , l, m, &c. Geminorum.”

 

 

 

837

  May 3

 

“A strange star was seen within Twan Mun, near the star Ping.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 48

 

“Twan Mun, between b and h Virginis.

Star Ping, n and others in Virgo.”

 

 

 

837

  May 21

 

“The strange star seen in the lower part of S. D. Tsing, to the east, disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 48

 

“This relates to No. 206 (April 29).”

 

 

 

837

  June 17

 

“The strange star seen in Twan Mun disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 48

 

“See No. 207, to which this relates (May 3).”

 

 

 

837

  June 26

 

“A strange star, like a comet, was seen in Nan Tow, near Teen Yo.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 48

 

“Nan Tow, same as S. D. Tow, determined by d, m, &c. Sagittarii.

Teen Yo, not identified.”

 

 

 

837

  September 9

 

“There was a comet in the S. D. Heu and Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 48

 

“S. D. Heu determined by b Aquarii and another.

S. D. Wei determined by a Aquarii and q, e Pegasi.”

 

 

 

837

  8th November

 

“There was seen a star as large as a bushel and 50 degrees long, spinning to the north-west.  …  When it extinguished, it shot forth arrows slithering like serpents.

 

In the middle of the sky, there was some noise.  Many hundreds of smaller stars were following the big one.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

837

  18th December

 

“A large star fell at Hing-youen (Han-tchong-fou in Chen-si), on the bedroom of the governor.  The light illuminated the whole house.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

837

 

“Ticinum in Italy is said to have trembled eight times on the night of 3 Kalends January (30th of December).

 

A number of the leading men of Italy died, among whom were Lantbertus and Hugus the foremost.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 360

 

 

 

838

 

“During this winter, that is, in January, awful fiery comets appeared in the sign of Scorpionis not long after the sun went down.”

 

Vita Hludowici Imperatoris

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 644

 

 

 

838

 

“The winter was rainy and very windy, and in January, on 12 Kalends February (21st of January) thunderstorms were heard; similarly, in the month of February, on 14 Kalends March (16th of February), very loud thunder crashes were heard, and excessive heat from the sun burned the earth; and in some parts there was an earthquake; and fire in the form of a dragon was seen in the air.

 

In the same year heretical depravity arose.

 

In the same year, on the fifth night before Christmas, a great crash of thunder was heard, and lightning was seen, and in many ways the misery and calamity of men was increasing daily.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 226

 

 

 

838

 

“On the evening of 15 Kalends February (18th of January), there was an earthquake at sanctum Nazarium, and in Wormacense, Spirense and Lobadanense.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Enhardo

Gesta Quorundam Regum Francorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 361

 

 

 

838

 

“At about the middle of the Paschal Feast, a terrible and sad portent, that is, star comets appeared in the sign of Virginis, and in the same sign, “ … qua penulam eius subtus, caudam vero serpentis similiter corvumque constringunt … ”

 

Vita Hludowici Imperatoris

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 642

 

 

 

838

  November 11

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Chin and Kwei.  It was about 20 cubits in length.  The tail gradually pointed to the west.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 48

 

“S. D. Chin determined by b, &c. Corvi.

S. D. Kwei determined by g, d, &c. Cancri.”

 

 

 

838

  November 21 - December 8

 

“There was a comet in the east.  Its place was in S. D. Wei and Ke, from east to west.  It extended across the heavens.  In the 12th moon, day Jin Shin (December 8), it was no longer seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 49

 

“S. D. Wei determined by e, m, n, &c. in Scorpio.

S. D. Ke determined by g, d, e, &c. Sagittarii.”

 

“This may possibly be a continuation of the preceding account (November 11).”

 

 

 

839

  February 7

 

“There was a comet in Yu Lin.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 49

 

“Yu Lin , d, t, c and others in Aquarius.”

 

 

 

839

  March 12 - April 14

 

“There was a comet in Keuen Che, to the north-west.  In the 2nd moon, day Ke Maou (April 14), it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 49

 

“Kenen Che, e, n and others in Perseus.”

 

 

 

839

 

“A comet star appeared in the sign of Aries, and other wonders were seen in the sky.

 

The night sky glowed with a serene red, and for several nights very many little fires, like the stars, seemed to run through the air.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 361

 

 

 

839

 

“In the 8th month, on the 29th day, in Japan, according to a writing plate used by Abel-Rémufat, in the province of Ifumo, in a place where there are no stones, after ten days of thunder and rain, many stones were found that resemble the spikes of arrows and small axes, some white, and some red.”

 

Ueber Feuer-Meteore : und über die mit denselben herabgefallenen Massen

About fire meteors: and about the masses that fell with them

Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni

 

Chladni’s note here:

“It is doubtful whether we are talking about a meteor stone-fall, or whether belemnites [marine fossils that look like arrow-heads] or other defilements may be caused by the washing out of the earth, by rain.”

 

 

 

839

 3rd October

 

“A shooting star … having a tail of more than 80 degrees, made a sound like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

839

 

“On 7 Kalends January (26th of December), the day of the passion of Blessed Stephen the protomartyr, so great a flood, contrary to the custom of sea-tides, seized almost the whole of Friesland, with numerous piers [buried] in the sands, which they call "Dunes", generally equal; with everything and anything being wrapped up in them including people, animals and houses, the total was diligently determined to be two thousand four-hundred and thirty-seven [human casualties], it is reported.

 

In the sky, also, various fiery and multi-colored lines during the month of February, as well as stars emitting fiery hair, were seen frequently.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 433

 

I wonder if the sequence here is accurate, and my understanding of Roman dating system is wrong.

 

 

 “On 7 Kalends January (26th of December), a powerful windstorm arose, so that the waves of the sea inundated greatly over the coasts and beaches, tragically destroying an innumerable host of the human race, who were in those villages and surrounding areas, consumed together with the buildings.

 

For the fleets, as they were returning from the sea, were broken apart, and a flame of fire was seen over the whole sea.

 

On 8 Kalends April (25th of March) of the same year, remarkable sword-edges appeared in the sky at evening time, like a round house, compassing the whole of the heavens.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 226

 

 

 

839

 

“A huge wind overturned innumerable buildings, incurring much damage, on 6 Nones November *.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 44

 

* ? Nones is only 4 days that month...?

 

 

 “A huge wind overturned innumerable buildings, incurring much damage, on 4 November.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 44

 

 

 

 840

 

“Similar sword-edges appeared during two nights, as were seen in the previous year.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 226

 

 

 

840

 

“During several nights an excessive redness of the air appeared, so that one burning stream rising from the east and another rising from the Northwest, would coalesce into a cone, and, as it were, coagulated together, would show the appearance of blood at the top of the sky.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 362

 

 

 

840

  March 20

 

“There was a comet in Ying Shih, to the east, between that and S. D. Peih.  On the 20th day it disappeared.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 49

 

“Ying Shih, same as S. D. Shih, determined by a Pegasi and others.

S. D. Peih, determined by g Pegasi, &c .”

 

 

 

840

 

“In the third indiction the sun eclipsed in this world, and the stars appeared in the sky, on 3 Nones May (5th of May).  There was great tribulation.  And while the people were paying attention to this, many were thinking that this world would no longer stand, but while they were contemplating this distress, the sun shone, and, almost trembling, began to flee from the shadow.

 

But the very night following, near to morning, there was a light, sort of like during the day.

 

These signs, discovered in heaven, you would teach in the admonitions of their people, admonishing thus: Be prepared, brethren; because it has been fulfilled what the Lord said in the Gospel: "When you see these signs, you know that the day of the Lord is near, great and manifest!"”

 

Andreae Presbyteri Bergomatis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 235

 

An eclypse, for sure, but what’s with the light like day?

 

 

 

840

  December 3

 

“There was a comet in the east.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 49

 

 

 

841

 

“At the beginning of the year, during the hours of the night, a great light, emitted from the north side, and diffused far and wide, a deadly portent: the night turned almost into day.”

 

Annales Lugdunenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

841

  July

 

“There was a comet in Yu Lin, between Ying Shih and the east of the S. D. Peih.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 49, 50

 

“S. D. Shih determined by a Pegasi and others.

Ying Shih, same as a Pegasi.

S. D. Peih determined by g Pegasi and a Andromedæ.

Yu Lin, d, t and others in Aquarius.”

 

 

 

841

 23rd July

 

“In the north, there was a star that illuminated the ground, and sank to the north-east.  A noise was heard like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

841

 

“On 5 Kalends August (28th of July), feria 5, when the sun was bright, three circles appeared in the sky, similar in appearance to a bow, encompassing one another; but the sun, in the middle, which was ecompassed [by them all], seemed more full of color than the rest.

 

The greatest of these was in the west, the extreme part of which the sun seemed faint.

 

The middle one was in the north, which encompassed the aforesaid two equally.

 

The middle one was the greatest, but it seemed thinned out and barely visible.

 

And a small cloud in the east and north, with the same circular appearance, was not far from them, as it were in one place.

 

They were seen before the third hour of the day, and continued until the afternoon.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

 

Sundogs?

Other atmospheric light disturbance?

 

 

 

841

  22nd December

 

“A large star fell to the north, its light illuminating the ground.  A noise was heard like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

841

  December 22?

 

“There was a comet near Pih Lo Sze Mun.  Its place was in Ying Shih.  It entered Tsze Kung.  In the 12th moon, day Sin Maou, it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 50

 

“S. D. Shih determined by a Pegasi and others.

Pih Lo Sze Mun, Fomalhaut.

Tsze Kung, circle of perpetual apparition.”

 

“This date is unsatisfactory, the day Sin Maou not falling in the 12th moon.”

 

 

 

841

 

“A remarkable report: the Seine, while we know that there had not been any rain within the past two months, when the clear skies suddenly began to swell, spontaneously the fjords everywhere were stopped up.”

 

Nithardi Historiarum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 664

 

 

 

841

 

“A comet sar appeared under the sign of Aquarius, 8 Kalends January (25th of December).”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 363

 

 

 

842

 

“During Lent, a star in the west, having an unususally long ray [extending] eastward.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

 

 

 

842

 

“A comet star appeared in the west, from 7 Ides January (7th of January), up to Ides February (13th of February), 37 days.

 

Kalends March (March 1st), sword-edges appeared in the sky the first hour of the night, feria 4.

 

On 2 feria March, there again appeared horrible sword-edges in the sky, at the second hour of the night, in the east, in a colourful way - white, black, and red, or green.

 

Some were larger, some were smaller, and without intermission they were either rising or falling.

 

Between the east and the west was the highest brightness.

 

But these sword-edges filled most of the whole region of the north.

 

Between the west and the north there appeared in the manner of a very broad road a certain brightness, upto near the center of the sky, sort of stretching to the south.

 

It lasted until midnight.

 

And when it was "moon 20", there was so wonderful a brightness, that it stupefied the onlookers.

 

 

Sword-edges were again seen in the sky on 17 Kalends May (15th of April).

 

On 9 Kalends November (24th of October), at the first hour of the night, there was a formidable earthquake, and this sound continued for seven days.

 

It bellowed either at the first hour of the day, or at the ninth hour, or in the middle of the night, or at the beginning of the morning.

 

There followed a very strong cough, out of which many died.”

 

Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

pages 301, 302

 

 

 

842

 

“An earthquake occurred in the lower regions of Gaul.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 439

 

 

 

843

 

“Winter was very bitter and long lasting, as well as abounding in diseases, as well as in agriculture - quite unsuitable for bees and cattle.”

 

Nithardi Historiarum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 672

 

 

 

843

 

“There was a formidable famine in the month of May etc.”

 

Andreae Presbyteri Bergomatis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 240

 

 

 

843

 

“There was again a great earthquake, at dawn on 8 Ides September (6th of September).

 

A similar [quake] again in the middle of the night, and on the next day it again occurred at the first hour of the day, and then at the second hour of the day.

 

Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 302

 

 

 

844

 

“The winter was most mild until February, when the temperature changed.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 440

 

 

 

844

 1st October

 

“There appeared a large star with the appearance of a lit straw torch.  Its light illuminated both sky and ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

845

 

“The winter is very tough.

 

 

A powerful famine consumed the interior parts of Gaul, so much so that many thousands perished.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 441

 

 

 

845

 

“Twice there was an earthquake in the region of Wormasciense.  The first one was on the night following Palm Sunday, the second one was during the holy night of Christ's resurrection.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 228

 

 

 

846

 

“A North-East wind blows throughout the whole winter, until sometime at the beginning of May, leaning oppressively on the crops and vines.

 

 

In the month of May, a deluge of rains flowed near the city of the Altios, so that, penetrating through the walls, it delivered barrels full of wine into the river Icauna; but also, which is more wonderful, a certain vineyard with earth, vines, and trees, in no way broken up, remaining intact, was transferred from one side of the river Icauna to the other, as if it had naturally been in that field all along.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 442

 

 

 

846

 

“There was a huge savage thunder, from which many people perished on 8 Ides July (8th of July).”

 

Annales Laubacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

846

 

“A great light appeared in the night.”

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

846?

 

“At that time the weather and the dryness of the earth were so great, that each one wishing to be able to pass through a river did so by foot.

 

But the monks of the most blessed Father Benedict, seeing that death was so near to them, immediately gave peace in return, begging the merciful Lord to receive the souls of them mercifully in peace, whom they expected to depart to death speedily.

 

 

Then suddenly there arose mighty rain, lightnings, and thunders of so great an extent, indeed, that the river Carnellus overflowed excessively beyond the border, over which the enemy was able to cross the day before, on the following day, the expulsion being restrained by the divine, they could not reach the bank of the river.

 

 

Immediately there arose a mighty tempest and a violent storm; all the ships, therefore, were wrecked, and all the enemy slain; no one else was ever left to announce such things to the rest.”

 

Chronicon Casinense

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

pages 225, 226

 

 

 

848

 

“2 Nones February (4th of February), in the evening there was a flash of lightning that appeared suddenly, and thunder was heard.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 228

 

 

 

848

 

“Sword-edges were seen in the sky, on 5 Kalends December (27th of November), at midnight.

 

On 6 Kalends January (27th of December), again terrible fiery sword-edges were seen between the north and east, and are seen in the middle of the eastern quarter, at dawn.”

 

Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 302

 

 

 

848

 

“In the month of June there was a great earthquake throughout the whole region of Beneventi, so that it utterly overwhelmed the city of Iserniensem, and slew much of the population, and also extinguished the bishop of the same state.

 

There arose a similar ruin of buildings at Saint Vincent, and a similar earthquake occurred at the entrance to the monastery of blessed Benedict, but not even one stone fell from its place.”

 

Chronicon Casinense

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 227

 

 

 

849

 

“Paulus is ordained bishop in the city of Rothomago on 8 Ides January (6th of January).

 

In those days there was a great freezing of the river Seine, covered with a dense layer of ice rising up, so that the people would pass over it as if on a bridge.”

 

Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 302

 

 

 

849

 

“In Gaul, on 13 Kalends March (17th of February), at night, after the clerics concluded their nightly prayers to the Lord, a formidable earthquake, but no collapse of any of the buildings occurred.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 443

 

 

 “On 12 Kalends March (18th of February), an earthquake occurred at about the tenth hour of the night.”

 

Annales Floriacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 254

 

 

 

 “Earthquake.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 50

 

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

 “An earthquake takes place on 12 Kalends March (18th of February), throughout all of earth.”

 

Annales Flaviniacenses Et Lausonenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 152

 

 

 

849

  850?

 

“The autumnal season was inundated with rains.

 

On 3 Nones January (3rd of January), lightnings and thunders arose, and very extensive rains also.”

 

Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 302

 

 

 

850

 

“On the first day of January, that is the eighth of the Lord, from day unto the evening a great thunder resounded, with excessive lightning seen; and an inundation of water, this winter has afflicted the human race.

 

And in the following summer, excessive heat from the sun scorched the earth.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 229

 

 

 

850

 

“A very grievous famine overtook the people of Germany, especially the inhabitants of the Rhine, for a modius of grain was sold in Mainz for ten shekels of silver.

 

Archbishop Hrabanus abode at that time in a village of his parish, whose name is Winkela, and receiving the poor coming from different parts, daily fed more than three hundred, besides those who were continually eating at his side.

 

And there came also a woman, almost consumed with starvation, with a little boy, desiring to be refreshed among the rest, who, before she could pass the gates of the threshold, fell down on account of her great infirmity, and breathed out her spirit; the boy, however, pulled out of her arms and tried to suck the breast of his dead mother as if she were still alive, which compelled many to groan and weep.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 367

 

Another gruesome account follows this one.

 

Sheckels?

In the 9th century?

“siclis argenti”

 

 

 

851

  April

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Tsuy and Tsan, near the star Tang.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 50

 

“S. D. Tsuy determined by and small stars in head of Orion.

S. D. Тsan determined by a, b, g, d Orionis.

Tang, unascertained star in Orion.”

 

 

 

851

 

“Nomenoius was slain by an angel at the command of God, and died.”

 

Chronicon Aquitanicum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 253

 

 

 

852

 

“The countryside was kindled [like] iron ["Ferrum paganorum incanduit"]; excessive heat from the sun; and a famine ensued, with a deficiency of animal fodder, and pasture for pigs abounded.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 229

 

 

 

853

 

“There was a great famine in Saxony, so that many ate horses.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 229

 

 

 

855

 

“There was much ice and frost so that the principal lakes and rivers of Ireland could be crossed by people on foot and on horseback from the 23 November to the 7th of January.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

855

 

“In [August] two stars - one of greater and the other of a lesser size, were seen moving from west to east, and walked across the sky like this for 10 successions; as the larger remained, the smaller one could not be seen at times.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 449

 

 

 

855

 

“The church of St Kiliani in Wirtzeburg was burnt by lightning bolts.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 46

 

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 46

 

 

 “At Mainz the land is said to have trembled twenty times.

 

An unusual atmospheric commotion of whirlwinds and tempests, with the hail-blows damaging much.

 

Many houses were struck by lightning bolts and burned, including the church of St. Kilian the martyr, Nones July (7th of July), as the clergy were celebrating the evening praises, it was struck and set on fire by a sudden blow, and, strangely enough, the fire hanging from the ceiling of the house, hovering for so long, leaving materials uninjured, until the bones of the holy martyr and the whole treasure of the church were carried out unharmed.

 

Some of the clergy, too, were struck by lightning, with their robes remaining uninjured, various parts of limbs were found to have had severe burns.

 

It is also said that in those regions a certain man was burnt in such a way by a heavenly fire, that when the body was destroyed, the clothing remained uninjured by the fire.

 

On the eighth day of the following month, at the feast of the birthday of the same holy martyr, the walls of the church, which had not been destroyed by heavenly fire, suddenly a terrible tempest arose and utterly destroyed it.

 

In the month of October - 16 Kalends November (17th of October), sparks like arrow-heads were driven westward through the air during the whole night, most densely.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 369

 

 

 “October 17. “This year there was a fall of stars during the night preceding the first day of the month Djomadi II, (Hegira 241,) which continued from the beginning of the night until dawn.  At the same period earthquakes were felt in all parts of the world.”

 

Tarich el-Mansury

Cod. 521. Acad. Sci. fol. 51

cited by M. Fraehn, in a communication to the Imp. Acad. Sci. of St. Petersburgh

Dec. 1, 1837;

quoted in L’Institut, Paris, No. 252, p. 350. Oct. 25, 1838.

 

Cited in Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

pages 353-355

 

 

 

856

 

“The winter was very rough and dry, a formidable pestilence, by which a great part of the population was taken.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 449

 

 

 

856

 

“Three persons were burned in Tailtiu by fire from heaven.  A great windstorm caused a destruction of trees and ruined lake islands.”

 

The Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

856

  September 27

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Fang.  It was 3 cubits in length.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 50

 

“S. D. Fang determined by b, d, p, &c. in Scorpio.”

 

 

 

857

 

“The synod was also held at Mainz on the first of October, under the presidency of Archbishop Charles; where, besides things discussed such as ecclesiastical law, a letter from Gunther, bishop of Cologne, addressed to Bishop Altfrid, from which it was read that: on 17 Kalends October (15th of September), a very terrible tempest occurred at Cologne, and all the people, owing to great horror, fled into the basilica of St. Peter, and with the standards of the church resounding, unanimously beseeching God's mercy, suddenly an enourmous thunderbolt, like a fiery dragon, tore through and penetrated the basilica, and from this multitude, three men in different locations were struck down dead in a single blow, an elder near the altar of St. Peter, a deacon at the altar of St. Denis, a layman at the altar of St. Mary; others, numbering 6 were also brought down by the same assault, remaining as if half-alive, they could scarcely recover.

 

It is also said that other prodigies occurred in those times to the Treviri, but I deferred to write of this, because I had no certain news concerning them.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 370

 

 

“Many prodigious signs, and a dog was seen by the Treveris in the pontifical seat of the church.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 3

 

 

 

“In the city of Colonia Agrippina [Cologne], in the presence of Bishop Gunther, in the church of Blessed Peter, a very thick cloud descended upon it with numerous lightning bolts, when suddenly a flash, like a fire, entered through the eaves of the same church, kills a priest, a deacon and one of the laity, and winds up going into hidden parts in the earth.

 

In August, too, with the clergy and people celebrating with bishop Teotgaud of the Treviri, a most hideous cloud descended, terrifying the church with thunder and lightning, breaking in pieces the tower of ringing bells, and filled the church with such darkness that they could scarcely recognize one another; and there was seen an exceedingly abnormal dog circling around the altar, suddenly [disappearing] into a chasm in the earth.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 450

 

Electromagnetic phenomenon for sure.

Don't some drawings of dragons include dog-like features?

 

 

Annales Colonienses Brevissimi

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 97

This annal mentions this, but dates it to 858!?

 

 

 

857

 

“A great plague of festering boils rages among the people, and has consumed them with a detestable putridness, so that, with a disjointed body, they would fall before death.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 230

 

 

 

858

 

“On the first of January there was a great earthquake in different cities and regions, but the greatest was at Mainz, where the ancient retaining walls were rent asunder, and the church of St. Alban the martyr was so shaken that the sloping wall fell, and the oratory of St. Michael, on the west side of the double-vaulted basilica, with its roof and ceiling, broke into ruins down on the ground.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 370

 

 

“At the feast of our Lord's nativity, during the night and daytime, Mainz experienced strong and very frequent earthquakes, which even caused a formidable mortality.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 451

 

 

 

858

 

“In the month of May, in the village of Leudico, in which the body of St. Landbert rests, a sudden deluge of rain poured out so great a flood so that houses and stone walls or any building with everybody and everything inside, all the way up the memorial church of St. Landbert, a violent influx into the Mosam river was thrown.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 452

 

 

 “Excessive inundation.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 3

 

 

 

859

 

“The city of Mainz, with its adjoining places, is vexed by tremendous earthquakes throughout the course of the year.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 373

 

 

 

859

 

“On the first of January, the festival of mornings being celebrated, an earthquake occurred at Wormatiam once, and at Mainz thirteen times before dawn.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 230

 

 

 

859

 

“Sword-edges were seen in the sky during the months of August, September, and October during the night, so that the brightness of the day shone continually from the east to the north, and columns of blood proceeded to and fro.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 453

 

 

 

860

 

“The winter season was very rough and longer than usual, and injurious to the crops and the fruits of the trees.

 

The snow also was found to have fallen with blood in most places.

 

The Ionian sea was also constricted by ice, so that merchants, who had only ever used boats, then frequented Venice with their wares by horses and carts.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Ruodolfo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 373

 

 

 “The winter was long and continued with severe snow and ice from the month of November to April.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Prudentio, Trecensi Episcopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 454

 

 

 

 “Winter was great with a mortality of animals”

 

Annales Alamannici

Annalium Alamannicorum Continuatio Sangallensis Prima

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 50

 

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

Annales Weissemburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 49

 

 

 

 “A formidable winter.”

 

Annales Colonienses Brevissimi

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 97

 

 

 

860

 

“Thunder was heard on Nones February (5th of February).”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 230

 

 

 

861

 

“The longest winter.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 230

 

 

 

861

 

“A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Alamannici

Annalium Alamannicorum Continuatio Sangallensis Prima

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 50

 

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

 “A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 140

 

 

 

861

 

“Fiery sword-edges appeared in the sky around Galicinium, 6 Ides March (10th of March).”

 

Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 103

 

 

 

862

 

“There was a great famine and disease in Germany and in other parts of Europe.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

863

 

“A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Laubacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

 

 

 

863

 

“A great famine and disease spread in Germany and other parts of Europe.”

 

Annals of Magdeburg

 

 

 

863

 

“The winter was turbulent, changeable, and very rainy, and was almost entirely without ice, as was evident in the following passages in the church of St. Victor:

 

864

 

The excessive inundations of waters in the countryside already mentioned, devastated churches everywhere, a channel of the Rhine reached up to Xanten, laying waste to a most splendid place.

 

And, as it is sorely regretted by all those who heard and saw, the church of St. Victor, built with marvelous craftsmanship, was burned, having removed all that they had found within or outside the sanctuary.

 

The clergy, however, and almost all the common people, fled.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 231

 

 

 

864

 

“A comet appeared around the first of May, [lasting] for twenty days.”

 

Annales Floriacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 254

 

 

 

864

  June 21

 

“In the evening, a comet was seen in the north-east, through an opening in the clouds, for not more than 15 minutes.  Its colour was yellowish white.  It was 3 cubits in length, and was in S. D. Lew.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 50

 

“S. D. Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis.”

 

 

 

864

 

“... before this rebellion had taken place, so much snow fell over Italy that it took hold over level places for a hundred days; and the ice was very heavy, many seedings perished, the life in nearly all level places was exhausted, and the wine was frozen in small vessels, so that nothing went through the hole of the thorns, until this ice was broken with a club from the front of the thorn.”

 

Andreae Presbyteri Bergomatis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 235

 

Were thorns employed as bottle corks?

 

 

 

865

 

“There was an earthquake.”

 

Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis Minores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 94

 

 

 

865

 

“A sudden deluge and severe hail took the crops.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

866

 

“Loch Léibhinn was turned to blood, which gave rise to clots of blood like lungs around its edge.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

867

 

“A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Lemovicenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 251

 

 

 

 867

 

“An earthquake occurred in many places, 7 Ides October (9th of October).”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 380

 

 

 “Earthquake.”

 

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 51

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 140

 

 

 

867

 

“Excessive overflowing rain.”

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 51

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

 

867

 

“A huge wind along with the storm leveled many buildings.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

867

 

“In the mean time the army of Lothar is wearied with a severe pestilence; for he is discomfited from unusual heat and intemperate air, and he is seized with a disease of dysentery or spleen, from which plague an innumerable multitude has been extinguished; many also perished by spider-bites, so that at that time it might be understood that, on account of his hard and impenitent heart, God would be an adversary not only to Lotharius, but also to all his kingdom.”

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 579

 

 

 

867

 

“A remarkable eruption of water from Sliab Cualann, with little black fishes.  A great windstorm on the Feast of Martin – 11th November.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

868

 

“A comet-star appeared for several nights; the fountains and the rivers also, on account of a very great rain storm, swelled by rising inundation, and in various places did no small damage to the crops and buildings.

 

This misfortune brought great famine, and a great destruction of the human race followed throughout all Germany and Gaul.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 380

 

 

“A comet appeared for 25 days, starting around 4 Kalends February (29th of January), first under "temone minoris Arcturis".  Then she advanced almost as far as "triangulum".

 

There arose in that year a famine and mortality almost unheard of throughout the empire of the Franks, but especially in Aquitania and Burgundy, so that there were not enough people to bury the dead.

 

For in the city of Senonis 56 people were found dead in a single day.

 

There was even discovered in the commotion, in the same village, a man and a woman doing evil by killing and then devouring others!

 

For in Ponto Siriaco, a certain man slew a kindred woman, who had been received by the hospital, and, dividing her into pieces, seasoned her with salt, and boiled her to be eaten by him and his own sons.

 

In the city itself a woman did the same with a young man.

 

In many other places, too, it is commonly reported that this very thing happened by reason of the scarcity and famine.

 

Therefore, in the month of May, a modius of grain was sold to the state of Senonis for eight solidi, a modius of "sigale" seven and a half solidi, a modius of barley six and a half solidi, a modius of oats five solidi, and a modius of salt twelve solidi.

 

But by divine providence a harvest more abundant than ususal came to the rescue.”

 

Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 103

 

 

 “A comet was seen most clearly.”

 

Annales Augienses

Pars Secunda, Genuina

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 68

 

 “A comet was clearly seen.”

 

Annales Wirziburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 241

 

 

 

 “Star comets.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 51

 

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

“A strong and violent famine enticed Germany as well as the other provinces of Europe.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

“A desperate famine, and a mortality of people and animals.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 51

 

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

 “A formidable famine, and a mortality of people and animals.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 76

 

 

 “A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Colonienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 98

 

 

 

868

  February

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Lew and Wei.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 51

 

“S. D. Lew determined by a, b, g Arietis.

S. D. Wei determined by the three stars in Musca.”

 

 

 

868

 

“During the days of fasting of September, two great circles appeared in the sky, similar in aspect to a rainbow.

 

The greater of these, from the north, was most lovely, but afterwards, as if to bestow its fullness to the south, it languished.

 

But the smaller one, alone, itself encompassing the middle, shone with every beauty on the other's extremities.

“Minor vero solem sibi medium circumcingens, in extrema parte alterius omni decore resplendui”  ?

 

From before the third hour they sprung up and lasted until the ninth hour, then they disappeared.

 

At the same time, in Saxony, fire was seen in the air with the speed of an arrow, as thick as the wood of the weavers, and like a mass of iron emitting sparks in the refinery, and suddenly before the eyes of many it was reduced to a pitch smoke.

 

But as to the significance of these things, the Lord alone knows.

 

Then, in the autumn, a decree was issued by the kings that a three day fast should generally be observed, and with the dread of famine and pestilence looming; and a great earthquake throughout the kingdom, a desperate human existence befell many.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 233

 

 

 

868

 25th November

 

“There appeared a star with the appearance of a silk-skin.  It traversed the sky, transformed itself into a cloud, and disappeared.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

869

 

“In the month of February, thunder was heard in the dark waters in the clouds of the air, and on 15 Kalends March (15th of February), that is, on the holy night of Septuagesimae, a comet star was seen from the north and from the west, immediately there was an excessive storm of winds and a great deluge of water; in which many perished unexpectedly.

 

And afterward, during the summer season, a very severe famine followed in many provinces, especially in Burgundy and Gaul, in which a large number of men endured bitter death, so that people are said to have tolerated the eating of human corpses.

 

Moreover, they are said to eat the flesh of dogs.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 233

 

 

 

869

 

“Lightning strike, on the first of July, between the tenth and eleventh hour of the day.”

 

Annales Augienses

Pars Secunda, Genuina

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 68

 

 

Annales Colonienses Brevissimi

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 97

 

Again – this annal dates this to 870.

A year too late, again.

(see 858)

 

 

 

 

869

  September

 

“There was a comet to the north-east of Ta Ling.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 51

 

“Ta Ling, t and others in Perseus.”

 

 

 

870

 

“The Basilica, being struck by a thundering thunderbolt, blazed eastward.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 3

 

 

 

870

 

“At Mainz for several nights the whole air shone with redness, as if bathed in blood; other wonders were also seen in heaven.

 

For some clouds ascended at night, from the north, others from the east, meeting at the top of the sky [For clouds of different colours ascended for three successive nights from the north, others from the east, coming together at the top of the sky], fiery arrows shooting one another without ceasing; coalescing, finally, at the summit of the sky, jumbling themselves together as armies do in battle, and the people displayed no small amount of fear and wonder when they saw this; with all of them, however, begging that they be converted into good monsters.

 

Mainz itself also was twice shaken by an earthquake; it is reported that some in the the territory of Worms, as they were gathering the harvest, perished on account of unusualy heavy heat from the sun; and many also perished being drowned in the river Hren.

 

 

A pestilence among the oxen also, assailing some places in Francia, inflicted a most terrible and irrecoverable loss.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 382, 383

 

 

 

871

 

“A formidable wind.”

 

Annales Colonienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 98

 

 

 

872

 

“During the same year an infestation of thunder and storm and hail has greatly harmed the human race, in crops and buildings.

 

For the principal mother-church of St. Peter the Apostle of the city of Vangionae, recently restored anew by Bishop Samuel, and the abbot of the monastary of St. Nazarii, was overthrown and set on fire by a bolt of lightning.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 234

 

 

 “Fierce summer heat and excessive drought nearly destroyed the whole harvest, and many houses, together with people and animals, were incinerated and burned by lightning.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

 “The entire summer season was never free from hail or other various storms; for the hail devastated the crops in many places; and even dreadful thunders and lightnings were threatening mortal destruction almost every day; by whose powerful blows men and beasts were killed and brought to ashes, in different places, it is reported.

 

The house of St Peter, at Wormatiam, was destroyed by heavenly fire, and the walls were completely demolished.

 

And on 3 Nones December (3rd of December), at the first hour, the city of Magontinam was shaken by an earthquake.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 385

 

 

Annales Augienses

Pars Secunda, Genuina

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 68

This annal mentions this, but dates it to 873.

 

 

 “Wormatia is burned by lightning bolts.”

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

872

 873?

 

“Many signs were shown.

 

The wine, just as it was gathered and filled into small containers, was immediately spoiled, which is called "versio" [a turning].

 

During the Passover of the Lord, forests ["arbores"], shrubland ["folia" ?] and every other location almost [all of?] earth ["quasi terra"] obeyed rain; following this, however, a frost fell on 4 Nones May (4th of May), and the shoots of many vines in the plains and in the valleys withered with the grapes; and in like manner the woods became very tender with their leaves withering.”

 

Andreae Presbyteri Bergomatis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 237

 

This report is immediatley followed by a report of locusts in August, which occurred in 873 in multiple annals (see below).

 

 

 

873

 

“In winter, an unexpected deluge, with snow mixed in, suddenly swelled, especially on the shores of the river Rhine.

 

From the effects of many waters, a multitude of people perished, along with innumerable buildings and crops.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 235

 

 

 

873

 

“There was a great flood and a prodigious multitude of locusts.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 3

 

 

“There was a great famine in Germany, and an incredible multitude of locusts came.”

 

Annales Hildesheimenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 48

 

 

 

“A multitude of locusts spread through Germany into Gaul, and especially into Spain, to such an extent that it could be compared to the [biblical] plagues of Egypt.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Hincmaro Remensi Archiepiscopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 496

 

 

“There was a formidable famine throughout Italy and Germany, and many perished by starvation.

 

In the season of new crops, a new kind of plague, first among the French, seen by the Germans, as their sins incurred, did no moderate amount of damage.

 

For vermin, like locusts, having four wings and six feet, came from the east, and covered the whole surface of the earth like snow, destroying everything that was green in the fields and in the meadows.

 

They had a broad mouth and an extended intestine, and two teeth harder than stone, by which they were able to gnaw on very thick tree bark.

 

Their length and thickness are like the thumb of a man; they were so numerous, that in one hour of the day they consumed one hundred acres of crops near the city of Mainz.

 

But when they were flying, they covered the whole air for the space of one mile, so that the brightness of the sun was scarcely visible on the ground; some of which were slain in various places, and were found to have had in them whole stalks, with grains, fibrils and all.

 

Some set out for the west, more came, and almost daily for 2 months, when people saw their flight, they were presented with a dreadful spectacle.

 

It is reported that in Italy, in the region of Brescia, blood rained from heaven for three days and three nights.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 386

 

 

“An incalculable multitude of locusts coming from the east in the month of August, ravaged almost the whole of Gaul.

 

These were larger than other locusts, and they had six wings rowing; and, it is said to have been surprising when the swarm moved in the air in distinct ranks, or, when leaning on the ground, the swarm melted.

 

The [locust]-generals and a few of their [locust]-cohorts went ahead of the [swarm]-army by a day's march, as if scouting out the next place [of locust-attack].

 

About the ninth hour, where the [locust]-dukes had arrived the day before, they were seated; they did nut budge, until the sun revealed its rising, then, they deployed by companies; so that you might perceive military discipline in these small animals.

 

They devoured the crops to such an extent that they seemed to have been consumed as if by a monstrous storm.

 

The length of their journey in a day was four or five miles.

 

They came as far as the British Sea, covering the surface of the earth, in which, by the will of God, they were struck by violently blowing winds, and were carried away into the deep.

 

But, being refused by the tide, rejected by the ocean, they filled the sea-shore, and such a heap was made that mountain-like masses formed and accumulated:  from their stench and rottenness, the air was corrupted, a dire plague in the neighboroing area was produced, from which many perished.”

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 585

 

 

 “About the middle of August, the ancient plague of the Egyptians, that is, an innumerable company of locusts, after the manner of bees springing out of the hive, arose from the east through our lands; which flutter in the air, giving a subtle voice like a little bird.

 

And while they were aloft, one could scarcely see the heavens - as through a sieve.

 

But in most places the pastors of the churches and all the clergy met them with boxes [to trap them?] and crosses, imploring the mercy of God to defend them from this plague.

 

Not necessarilly everywhere, but in places, they have incurred damage.

 

Likewise, on the first of November up to the sixth [Sexagesimam], snow covered the whole surface of the earth; and the Lord continually afflicted and visited his people with diverse plages, with a rod for their iniquities, and a whip for their sins.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 235

 

 

 

 

This annal mentions the swarm briefly, but dates it to 874 instead:

 

Annales Vedastini

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 196

 

 

 

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 140

 

This annal dates the locusts to 874!

 

 

 

873

 872?

 

“Wormacium is burned by a lightning bolt.”

 

Annales Wirziburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 241

 

 

 

873

 

“But before the nefarious nation took flight, The Redeemer showed many signs of this kind from heaven: most [intense? numerous?] little fiery torches ["faculam igneam per:::::::am"] were shot swiftly in the midst of the ships, the tempest that followed broke their light boats in pieces.”

 

Chronicon Salertnianum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 533

 

["faculam igneam per:::::::nam"]

was corrected by Pertz to:

["faculam igneam permaximam"]

 

 

 

874

 

“The winter was prolonged and strong, with the snow so deep that nobody could recall seeing so much quantity beforehand.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Hincmaro Remensi Archiepiscopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 497

 

 

 “The winter was very rough and longer than usual; and the great snow, which fell without ceasing from the first of November until the vernal equinox, caused a great obstacle for men to seek through forests and collect wood.

 

Whence not only numerous animals, but also many people perished by the cold.

 

Moreover, the Rhine and Moenus, being constricted by stiff ice, afforded for a long time to be treaded upon by foot.

 

This year, by famine and pestilence having spread throughout all Gaul and Germany, nearly a third of the population perished.

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 388

 

 

 “Formidable snow.”

 

Annales Colonienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 98

 

Again, this annal dates this a year late – 875!

See other examples from Annales Colonienses.

 

 

 

874

 

“A prolonged summer has dried the grass and made harvests scarce.”

 

Annales Bertiniani

Auctore Hincmaro Remensi Archiepiscopo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 497

 

 

 

875

 

“A comet star, 8 Ides June (6th of June), appeared in the northern part at the first hour of the night, sparkling and scattering its hair more than usual, proving by his apparition a stupendous, and indeed deplorable event which soon followed, although it is still feared to signify more grievous things, incurred by our sins.

 

For a certain village in the region of Nitense, named Asgabrunno, far removed from the rivers and ravines, was nearly destroyed by a sudden inundation by rain showers, with eighty-eight casualties.

 

While the people in the same place went to sleep suspecting nothing, 5 Nones July (2nd of July), so great a rain fell from heaven in one moment, that it eradicated all the trees and vineyards which it reached in the same village, and utterly eradicated the buildings, and delivered them to destruction, with all the cattle and animals that were in the houses.

 

The church of the same town also with its altar was thus destroyed, so much so as to provide no evidence of its construction.

 

There was a miserable sight there, regarding the women and children:  when men, stretching out their hands to their wives, striving to come to their aid, being seized by a rush of water, they, together with those whom they tried to save, were all drowned to death.

 

Moreover, corpses long-interred, were, by the force of water, released from their graves, and were found on the borders of another town, along with their caskets.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

pages 388, 389

 

 

 “A comet star appeared in the sky, resembling a radiating long tail, during the whole month of June, morning and evening.”

 

Andreae Presbyteri Bergomatis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 237

 

 

 

877

  June

 

“A comet was seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 50

 

 

 

877

 

“In this year an Italian fever inducing pain in the eyes severely vexed the German people, especially those who dwelt along the Rhine; a great epidemic also ensued, as the army of Carlmanni was returning from Italy, so that many, by coughing, exhaled the spirit.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 391

 

 

 

877

 

“Great wind and lightning.  A shower of blood fell and clots of gore and blood were found in the fields.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

878

 

“A most terrible pestilence of oxen rages in Germany, especially around the Rhine, after which a mortality of people of an unusual degree ensued.

 

There is a certain village in Worms located not far from the palace of Ingalenheim, named Walahesheim, where a remarkable thing happened; for while the dead animals were daily dragged from their houses into the fields, the dogs who were in the same village, according to their custom, ate the same carcasses, tearing them to shreds; but on a certain day, almost all of them assembled into one place, and departed thence, so that none of them could afterward be found neither alive nor dead.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 392

 

 

 

880

 

“While we were on the river Aisna in the village of Ritest on 8 Kalends February (25th of January), in the watch of St. Praeiecti the martyr, after the ninth hour of the day, suddenly a star of astonishing size and brightness shone.

 

In short, it exceeded the incomparable measure of the stars, but did not fulfill the measure of the sun.

 

Whence, while we were watching it, it seemed sometimes to grow beyond measure by flaming rays, and at times to fade away by excessive paleness; and thus, by varying its incredible speed, it went toward sunset, and lastly, before it concealed itself among the mountains, setting an obstacle to our gaze, it completely vanished.

 

Nor can it be inferred from this fact that a sign of this kind has been shown by the star.

 

When the radiant power of some was then dominant, … "peccatis autem promerentibus perpeti fine deficiens ita evanuit" … , it vanished in such a way that it was not even worth keeping in mind.”

 

Richeri Historiarum Libri I

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 569

 

"peccatis autem promerentibus perpeti fine deficiens ita evanuit"

something about atoning for sins…

 

The whole quote is from the margin, from "codice regio Monacensi inter Augustanos" with more detailed reference given.

 

 

 

880

 

“The winter is rough and longer than usual; for the Rhine and the Moenus rivers, being constricted by the stiffness of the ice, allowed themselves to be traversed by foot for a long time.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 393

 

 

 

880

 

“In Wormacense and in Nitense, and in many places in the kingdom of Louis, the barrenness of crops and the scarcity of all things affected the German people to no small degree.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 394

 

 

 

880

 

“... divine vengeance immediately followed; for fire had been sent from heaven, and had almost utterly destroyed the central city [Capua?].”

 

Erchemperti Historia Langobardorum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 254

 

 

 

881

 

“The winter season is very long and very harmful to animals of different kinds.

 

For the earth, constricted in the spring by the stiffness of ice, denied pastures to animals, which, for the most part perished by famine and cold, almost matching the barrenness of the previous year.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 394

 

 

 

 “A hard winter.”

 

Annales Weingartenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 66

 

 

 

881

 

“3 Kalends January (30th of December), before the cock-crow, there was a very great earthquake at Mainz so that the shaking buildings, as if composed of clay, collided with each other and fragmented like earthenware.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 394

 

 

 

882

 

“On 15 Kalends February (18th of January), a comet star appeared at the first hour of the night, scattering its hair exceedingly, presaging by its appearrance the ill-omened thing which soon followed [the death of Hludowicus 2 days later].”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Incerto

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 395

 

 

 

882

 

“In the month of February, on the ninth day of the same month, on Wednesday, luna 17, it [the moon?] was darkened like blood from midnight until dawn; ... ... ; which was afterwards followed by a severe famine for two or three years.”

 

Thietmari Chronicon

Edente V. Cl. IOH. M. Lappenberg, I. U. D.

Rei Publicae Hamburgensis Tabulario

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 872

 

 

 

882

 

“A wonderful and astonishing thing occurred to the besiegers and the besieged one day.

 

For on 12 Kalends August (21st of July), in the afternoon, a dark mist suddenly covered the whole camp, lightning and thunder crashed and immediately there was great hail, that no mortal had ever seen before, not as it is usual for descending stones which usually have a flat and smooth surface, but these had a horned, uneven and rough face, which, to all who saw it, afforded an unusual and great spectacle.

 

An amazing and incredible report: that even their thickness could barely be surrounded by the thumb and middle finger.

 

For the horses were so astonished as to break their stakes and their reins, partly outside of the camp, and partly in the camp, by misunderstanding and astonishment.

 

A great part of the besieged city fell by reason of the aerial assault.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 397

 

 

 

882

 

“In those days when they were returned to the house of Baioariis, a great and monstrous epidemic spread throughout the whole of Norica, so that often two corpses were buried in one grave.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 397

 

 

 

883

 

“A certain mountain in Italy, moved from its place in pieces, falling into the river Athesin, closing off its passage.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Anonymo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 398

 

 

 

883

 

“Throughout all of Italy the whole population was afflicted with a disease so severe that this misery threatened to reach the court, the military, even the king himself.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 398

 

 

 

885

 

“A comet was seen in Tseih Shwuy, between that and Tseih Sin.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 51

 

“Tseih Shwuy, l, m Persei.

Tseih Sin, c Geminorum and m Cancri.”

 

 

 

886

 

“In the month of February an army of the Eastern Franks was sent against the Norsemen in Gaul, came to a stop near Paris on account of a menacing deluge of rain and cold on their journey, suffering no little damage to their horses.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Anonymo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 403

 

 

 “On 8 Ides February (6th of February), a serious danger occurred to the inhabitants of the city [Paris], for the lesser bridge was broken as a result of the most severe inundation of the river.”

 

Annales Vedastini

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 523

+

Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 202

 

 

 

886

  June 13

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Wei and Ke.  It passed through Pih Tow and She Te.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 51

 

“S. D. Wei determined by e, m, n, &c . in Scorpio.

S. D. Ke determined by g, d, e Sagittarii.

Pih Tow, a, b, g, &c. Ursæ Majoris.

She Te, stars in feet of Boötis.”

 

 

 

886

 

“In the months of May, June, and July, so great a quantity of rain fell from the sky, day and night, without ceasing, that no one could recollect there having ever been so great an abundance of water in ages past.

 

As a result, the rivers were swelling in different places, and various crops were exposed to injury.

 

For the Rhine overflowed it banks, and emptied all places adjoining to it, from its headwaters all the way down to the mouth of the river at the sea - all crops, linen, and hay were cleared away.

 

The Po river is also said to have done similar things in Italy.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Anonymo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 403

 

 

 

886

 

“In autumn, inundations of water, greater than usual, discharged an inestimable volume.

 

For in the East, as the waves burst forth along the shore, the villages are suddenly surrounded by surprise, so that they are carried off along with the inhabitants, men, women, and children, into the abyss.

 

In the Alps there was such a rapacity of waters and a clash of stones, that the outlines of the roadways could by no means be seen on the sides of the mountains.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 403

 

 

 

 886

 Around October

 

“A large star fell at Yang-tcheou-fou in Kiang-nan; it made a noise like thunder, and its light illuminated the ground.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

887

 

“A rough and longer winter than usual, a pestilence of oxen and sheep also prevailed in France, so that almost no animals of the kind were left.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Anonymo

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 404

 

 

 

887

  Around June

 

“While the imperial troops were north of Pien-tcheou (Khai-loung-fou in Ho-nan), there appeared, in broad daylight, a large star that fell in the camp, with a noise like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

887

 

“A pilgrim came to Ireland with the 'Law of Sunday' and other good instructions, with the leaf given from heaven.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

889

 

“The sky appeared to be on fire on the night of the 1st of January.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

889

 

“Hard times were kindled this year.

 

For the Italian fever vexed a great many by coughing, the inundations of waters rose more than usual, civil wars disturbed all regions, a pestilence here and there, and an unexpected famine beyond measure.

 

Hail destroyed the crops, mortals suffered miserably due to scarcity of produce.

 

But besides this, another abominable prodigy was seen in the region of the Thuringorum.

 

For water from heaven, not as the rain usually descends - drop by drop, but instead rushing down in formation like a flowing stream, throughout three villages, with buildings being plucked out in an instant by a sudden stroke, three hundred bodies of the dead were gathered together by the rush of the waters thrown over the plain.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 406

 

 

 

890

 

“An excessive mortality of people.”

 

Annales Alamannici

Annalium Alamannicorum Continuatio Sangallensis Tertia

Codices Modoetiensis And Veronensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 52

 

 

“A great mortality of people.”

 

Annales Laubacenses

Annales Laubacensium Pars Tertia

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 52

 

 

 

890

 

“... in the time of Gaideris and Radelchis or the princes of Aionis, a great multitude of locusts invaded Calabriam, Apuliamque, and Samnium, and certain parts of Italy.

 

Then, after the boy called Bear had begun to rule, a comet star shone with terribly long hair for several days.  …

891

…    ... ... a terrifying torch on the southern side, with a long trail shining forth.

 

Then eight days after, a similar torch shone from the east almost to the west, after which it had begun to come to an end, and became like a species of dragon or "licterae".

 

... ... the torch ran again from the southern quarter, and after a little from the north, and afterwards a little from the east, and afterwards some days from the west, for he had shone four times in those days.”

 

Chronica Sancti Benedicti

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 202

 

What, in the world, are "licterae"?

 

 

 

891

 

“Star comets.”

 

Annales Alamannici

Annalium Alamannicorum Continuatio Sangallensis Tertia

Codices Modoetiensis And Veronensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 52

 

 

Annales Laubacenses

Annales Laubacensium Pars Tertia

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 52

 

 

 “Comets and solar eclipses.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 3

 

 

 

891

  May 12 - July 5

 

“There was a comet in San Tae.  It went to the east.  It entered Tae Wei.  It swept Ta Keo and Teen She.  It was about 100 cubits in length.  In the 5th moon, day Kea Seuh (July 5), it was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 51, 52

 

“San Tae, feet of Ursa Major.

Tae Wei, space within stars in Leo and Virgo.

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.

Ta Keo, Arcturus.”

 

 

 

891

 

“After Easter, about the gang-days or before, appeared the star that men in book-Latin call “cometa”: some men say that in English it may be termed “hairy star”; for that there standeth off from it a long gleam of light, whilom on one side, whilom on each.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

891

 

“At about the time of Rogation Sunday, a comet appeared, which was named in the English language Berete Sterre.”

 

Flowers of History

Matthew of Westminster

 

 

 

891

 

“On May 12 a comet, with a tail 100 cubits long, appeared near the feet of Ursa Major; it went towards the east.  It passed by the vicinity of β Leonis to α Bootis and Serpens, etc.  On July 5 it had disappeared.”

 

A Handbook of Descriptive and Practical Astronomy

George F. Chambers

Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1889

Page 570

citing: Ma tuoan-lin; Williams, 51; J. Asserius, Annales.

 

 

 

891

 

“A great windstorm on the feast of Martin, 11 Nov and it destroyed a large number of trees in the woods and carried away the oratories from their foundations, and the houses also.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

891

 

“Radespona was burned by fire.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 77

 

 

 

891

 892?

 

“Returning to normal from Luano, seeing that the whole kingdom was destroyed by famine, having left Francia in the autumn, they crossed the sea.”

 

Chronicon De Gestis Normannorum In Francia

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 536

 

 

 

892

 

“A comet appeared this year in the tail of Scorpio.  It lasted 12 weeks, and was followed by an extreme drought in April and May.”

 

A Handbook of Descriptive and Practical Astronomy

Page 570

citing “Chronicon Andegavense”

 

 

 

892

 

“The Chinese saw a comet with a broad set of tails in the south-west after sunset on December 28, recorded in Hsin Thang Shu and Wen Hsien Thung Khao.  It remained visible in Sagittarius, between φ Sagittari and β Capricorni, until December 31.  The comet ‘turned into a cloud’ before fading away.  Hsi suggested that this was a nova, but the Chinese definitely record the presence of tails.”

 

Early Sungrazer Comets

Kenelm J. England

Journal of the British Astronomical Association

vol.112, no.1, p.13-28

2002

 

 

 

892

  December

 

“There was a comet in S. D. Tow and New.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 52

 

“S. D. Tow determined by z, t, s, f, &c. in Sagittarius.

S. D. New determined by a, b, &c. Capricorni.”

 

 

 

892

 

“On the moon before Passover such evil occurred to us, which is irrecuperable.

 

For by chance, at the sixth hour of the day, the castle itself was kindled with fire, and it burned the churches of St. Vedasti, St. Peter, and St. Mary; in this fire all the patronage [artifacts/relics?] of the saints which we had were burned, and even the whole of the castle was destroyed.

 

Then a powerful famine and the barrenness of the land fell upon us, so that the inhabitants of the land left their places because of the greatness of the famine.

 

 

The Norsemen, returning from Luvano, seeing that the whole kingdom was worn down by famine, left France and crossed the sea in the autumn.”

 

Annales Vedastini

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 206

 

 

 

893

 

“The winter is rough, and extends beyond the usual length, so that in the month of March, snow for 5 days, measured to a depth of a foot.

 

Then, throughout Bavaria there was a very great scarcity of wine, along with a loss of sheep and bees.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 409

 

 

 

893

 

“We heard of misery and mortality and Christians devouring the flesh of one another.”

 

Annales Besuenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 248

 

 

 

893

 

“After several months of very bad weather the clouds went away, and on May 6 a comet was seen near ι and κ Ursae Majoris, with a tail 100 degrees long.  …  It was visible for 6 weeks, and its length gradually increased to 200 degrees (?). The clouds then hid it.”

 

A Handbook of Descriptive and Practical Astronomy

Page 570

citing “Ma-tuoan-lin”

(Mă Duānlín)

 

Notes from Chambers:

“The length is incredible, though Gaubil gives the same. Gaubil's date is 895, but Pingre is sure that 893 was the year. Williams (p. 52) pronounces in favour of 893, but misquotes Pingre' in doing so.”

 

 

  May 6 – June 12

 

“In the 2nd year of the same epoch, the 3rd moon, the heavens were for a long time covered with clouds.  In the 4th moon, on the day Yih Yew (May 6), the clouds gradually opened, and a comet was seen in the evening in Shang Tae.  It was about 100 cubits in length.  It went to the east.  It entered Tae Wei and swept Ta Keo.  It entered Teen She.  After 37 days it increased in length to about 200 cubits ( sic ), when the weather became cloudy it could no longer be seen.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 52

 

“Shang Tae, i, k Ursæ Majoris.

Ta Keo, Arcturus.

Tae Wei, space within stars in Leo and Virgo.

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.”

 

“Pingré has 895 for the year and June 25 for the day;

the Tables give the year 893, &c. as above.”

 

 

 

893

 

“In the summer of that year vermin of a strange species were seen in Ireland, similar to moles, with two long teeth each; and they ate all the corn, all the pasture, and the roots of grasses, and hay ground, causing a famine in the country; and it is supposed the Pagans took them there, and wished likewise to introduce them into the island of Britain; but by prayer to God, alms to the poor, and righteous life, God sent a sharp frost during the summer weather, which destroyed those insects.”

 

Brut Y Tywysogion

Chronicle Of The Princes

 

 

 

894

 

“A heavy snowfall and great scarcity.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

894

 

“The sound of great thunder cried out on 5 Kalends February (28th of January).”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 409

 

 

 

894

  February

 

“There was a comet in Shun Show.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 52

 

“Shun Show, one of the 12 kung, answering to our zodiacal sign Gemini or

Cancer.  It comprises the S. D. Tsing and Kwei, the stars composing which are in Gemini and Cancer.”

 

 

 

894

 

“A great earthquake throughout all Samnium and Apulia.

 

Then arose, under to the prophecy of the patrician, a burning, from almost the middle of the city of Beneventanae, from the church of St. Renati, as far as the Golden Gate, on the same day [July 13th], in the third year after the siege of that city had begun.

 

Afterwards, indeed, the same signs of torches appeared on many occasions in different places; but this was not more terrible than that which had appeared in Apulia.

 

For a long flame seemed to burn from the second hour nearly until the third hour of the day.

 

Finally, the plague of the plains followed, which in some places utterly destroyed all the tender fruits, and even the leaves of trees, in the province of Beneventanam.”

 

Chronica Sancti Benedicti

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 203

 

 

 

895

 

“A powerful famine arose throughout the whole province of the Bavarians, so that in many places they perished by starvation.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 410

 

 

 “A formidable famine, and hail.”

 

Annales Laubacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 53

 

 

“Famine and hail.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 53

 

 

 

895

 

“A great earthquake was seen in many parts of western Francia.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 411

 

 

 

896

 

“At the beginning of the year on  5 Ides January (9th of January), luna 8,  " … circa conticinium arripente cursum … ", there began frequent lightning flashes with thunder crashes exciting the air tremendously, at the same time a southwest wind "Vento Africus", also called "Lybs", rushed in.

 

Then, suddenly, the aforementioned wind rose up like a madman, with a great crash of thunder and very large gusting storms - a terrific unheard-of whirlwind, houses shook, with roof tiles and other wing-like pieces splitting off and flying far away, and some saw that the summit of the tower was slightly agitated, compelled by the force of this whirlwind with which we have never experienced.

 

And, beyond this tract, in which the monastery of the blessed Columba is situated, it is certain that it raged across a far longer extent.

 

In this most agitated crisis, with the most pious clemency protecting us, with the merits of the saints who reside here, no one, not even Jesus could be found ["nullus pene vel Iesus repperitur"], with even birds found to be slain, so great a horror fell upon people that hardly anyone believed they would last an hour; with everyone trembling in fear of being picked up by the perpetual whirlwind, heaven and earth are mixed in confusion.”

 

Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 104

 

"circa conticinium arripente cursum"

“around late evening… something or other…”?

 

 

 

896

 

“On account of excessive tempests in the air, and the excessive downpouring of showers, and an immeasurable inundation of water, the whole army was impeded by the steep slopes of the tops of the mountains, wandering in all directions, painfully scaling over them.

 

From which also a very great epidemic among the horses, more severe than usual on account of the difficulty of the journey which aggravated them; so that almost the whole of the army drew their paraphernalia by means of oxen instead of horse, which is not usually the case.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 411

 

Translation is iffy on the very last bit of quote.

This rendering makes sense, though, right?

 

 

 

896

 

“The rains were very heavy and constant; and from the Sabbath the river Calor swelled up beyond the usual, so that waves flowed even above the bridge of the river Calor, with no memory of this ever happening in any previous age.”

 

Chronica Sancti Benedicti

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 204

 

 

 

896

 

“Excessive inundation.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 3

 

 

 

896

 

“There was a second earthquake.”

 

Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis Minores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 94

“Second”, in relation to which?

The next most previous one mentioned in this annal is 30 years prior (865).

 

 

 

896

 

“The Chinese annals record the appearance of three comets—one large and two smaller ones—at the same time, in the year 896 of our era. "They traveled together for three days. The little ones disappeared first, and then the large one." ”

 

Comets and Meteors

Daniel Kirkwood   

   Their phenomena in all ages; their mutual relations; and the theory of their origin.

1873

Produced by sp1nd and the Online Distributed Proofreading

Team at http://www.pgdp.net 2012

page 51

 

 

 

896

 Around July

 

“With the sky being stormy, in the middle of the showers, lightning strikes, thunderclaps, a star, large like a bowl, appeared in the south-west and fell in the north-east.  Its colour was like that of a stork’s feather, and it made a sound like that of a flight of wild ducks.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

896

 

“Arnolfus becomes Caesar at Rome, and hears of a miserable famine, mortality, with Christians eating the flesh of one another.”

 

Annales Colonienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 98

 

 

“In Augia, famine and mortality, with Christians eating the flesh of one another.”

 

Annales Augienses

Pars Secunda, Genuina

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 68

 

 

“A formidable famine.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 53

 

 

Annales Laubacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 53

 

 

 

897

 

“A shower of blood fell in Ard Cianachta.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

897

 

“In the summer of this year went the army, some into East-Anglia, and some into Northumbria; and those that were penniless got themselves ships, and went south over sea to the Seine.  The enemy had not, thank God, entirely destroyed the English nation; but they were much more weakened in these three years by the disease of cattle, and most of all of men; so that many of the mightiest of the king's thanes, that were in the land, died within the three years.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

897

 

“A stroke of lightning before dawn, 2. Ides June (12th of June).”

 

Annales Augienses

Pars Secunda, Genuina

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 68

 

 

 

897

 

“A formidable famine throughout the whole of Bavaria, so that many perished by starvation.”

 

Annales Fuldenses

Auctore Quodam Bawaro

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 413

 

 

 

899

 

November 14th  “In the year 286 (of the Hegira,) there was an earthquake in Egypt, on Wednesday, the 7th of the month Djolkaada, from midnight until morning, and the stars called Schuhub, (luminous meteors,) were in extraordinary commotion, going from east to west, and from north to south, in such a manner that no mortal could look at the heavens.”

Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

pages 353-355

 

Citing:

Elmacini Histor. Saracen., Arab. et Lat., op. Erpenii, p. 181

quoted by M. Fraehn, L'Institut, No. 252, p. 350

 

 

 

899

 

“A rainy year.  Great scarcity affected the cattle.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

899

 

“A rainy year.  Shortage of bread.”

 

Chronicon Scotorum

 

 

 

899

 

“A great famine compelled men to eat one another.”

 

Annals of Magdeburg

 

 

 

900

 20th April

 

“There appeared a star as large as a harbour-boat (loaded with) with 200 bushels.  Its color was yellow.  In front it was thin, but behind it was big or large.  It went to the south-west.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

Around December

 

“There appeared in the middle of the sky a big star, which sank slowly to the east while unwinding like a belt.  The sinuous trace of the light condensed and attached itself to the sky.  In an instant, it disappeared.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

900

 

“A marvellous sign appeared in heaven.

 

For the stars were seen everywhere as if flowing from the top of the sky to the horizon.

 

Around the poles almost all meet one another.

 

This portent was followed by tragic calamities - the extreme intemperance of the air, incessant windstorms, rivers transgressing their boundaries into others - a kind of terrifying image of kataclism.

 

And what is worse to these people is the fear of coming up against storms whipped up by God himself.”

 

Annales Xantenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 218

 

This report seems to be an annotation to a particular manuscript of the Annales Xantenses that Pertz was working from, following folio 42, ascribed to bishop Radbodo of Utrecht (whose term spanned 899 to 917):

"Sequitur fol. 42. annotatio, Radbodo episcopo Traiectensi debita".

 

 

 

901?

 

“The whole hemisphere was filled with those meteors called falling stars, the ninth of Dhu’lhajja, (288th year of the Hegira,) [A. D. 901, November 25th], from midnight till morning, to the great surprise of the beholders, in Egypt.”

 

Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

pages 353-355

 

Citing:

Modern Part of the Universal History

8vo. Vol. 2, p. 281. London 1780. (Hist. of the Arabs.)

 

 

 

902

 

“On 3 Ides October (13th of October), a terrible miracle took place in the sky throughout the whole world, from the first rooster to the rising of the sun, there are seen quasi-stars most densely like "aste" ["asteres"?] roaming through the air very far, against almost all the poles ["cardines"] of the sky so as to frighten the minds of all who beheld it, because nobody of age remembers, nor does any history report such a marvellous portent.

 

For at this time the king of Africa, arriving with an innumerable army, desired to invade all Italy, who, when he had arrived in Sicily, immediately laid hold of the city of Turin, which is very well fortified, and situated on top of a mountain, and there many Christians, since he could not turn them over to the evil of his faith, when Bishop Procobius and his clergy were found in the church, he burned them cruelly with fire, and crossing over to Calabria, took possession of Regium.

 

But when he was besieging the city of Cosentiam, in his effort to take Italian cities, on the same night on which the above-mentioned sign of the stars was seen, he was struck by a heavenly sword, and died a sudden death.

 

But his army, distraught by fear and terror, anxious to return to Africa, nearly all were consumed by shipwreck, and thus, by the mercy of God Almighty, Italy, placed on the wrist of Mars ['Italia in articulo Martis posita"], was delivered by his sword.

 

Whence some wished to assert that the sign of the stars was made for his death.

 

But because it had been seen not only in Italy but in the whole world, it is believed that the sentence of the Gospel is fullfilled, saying: , "There will be signs in the sun and moon and stars"; nor did God show such a sign for the death of a wicked king in the whole world [“neque emim tale signum pro iniqui regis morte in universo orbe Deus ostenderat”].”

 

Chronicon Salertnianum

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 549

 

 

 

902

 

 “I remember that in the year 290 [of the Hegira, beginning Dec.  4, A.  D.  902] there were seen in Egypt burning meteors which scattered themselves through the sky and filled the whole expanse; they caused great terror and increased continually.  A short time after, a great dearth of water was felt in this country: the Nile rose only thirteen cubits, and violent disturbances arose which caused the ruin of the dynasty of the Toulounis in Egypt. 

 

In the year 300 [beginning Aug.  17, A.  D.  912] the same phenomena were seen in all parts of the sky; the flow of the Nile was bad, and there were troubles and agitations in the country.”

 

(Ahmad ibn Yusuf - 835–912)

quoted in:

 

Relation de l'Egypte

ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Baghdādī

Translated and enriched with historical notes and critiques by:

M. Silvestre De Sacy

Paris, 1810, 4to. book 2, chap. 2, p. 340.

First quoted in part by M. Fraehn, (sup.)

The passages occur at pp. 117 and 118 of the Tubingen edition of 1789.

 

Cited in Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

pages 353-355

 

 

 

902?

 

 “In the month Djolkaada of the year 289, (of the Hegira,) died king Ibrahim ben Ahmet, and during the same night were seen great numbers of stars, which moved, as if they had been darted through the atmosphere, from a culminating point, and rushed down on the right and left, like rain.  On account of this phenomenon, this year was called the year of stars.”

 

Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times

pages 353-355

 

Citing:

Conde: Hist. de la Domination des Maures en Espagne, I, 397

quoted by M. Fraehn, (as above,) who states that the date is the 24th or 25th October, A. D. 902.

First quoted in part by Von Hammer

Comptes Rend. Acad. Sci., 1837, I, 293.

 

 

 

902

 

“About February an extraordinary star was seen below some stars in Cainelopardus.  After a little while it passed to χ Draconis.  On March 2 a shooting star touched it.”

 

A Handbook of Descriptive and Practical Astronomy

Page 571

 

citing: Calvisius, Opus Ckronologicum. Francofurti-ad-Oderam, 1620

 

 

 

903

 Around the spring equinox

 

“The day after the emperor came from Foung-tsiang (Chen-si), there appeared a star as large as the moon, which emerged from the vapors from the side of the east and sank to the west.  It made a noise like thunder.

 

It left a train which traversed the middle of the sky obliquely, and this train lasted 3 nights and disappeared.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

904

 30th June

 

“At the second hour of night, it was raining: a sombre time.  There was seen a star 200 degrees long; which appeared in the east and travelled to the south-west.  The front part was black.  The tail was red.  The middle was white.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

904

 

“At about the time of the birth of the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus a brilliant comet showed its rays in the east.  It lasted 40 days and 40 nights.”

 

A Handbook of Descriptive and Practical Astronomy

Page 571

 

citing: Leo Grammaticus, Chronographia, p. 483

 

 

 

905

 12th April

 

“In the night, there was seen a big star which came out of the middle of the sky; it was as big as 5 bushels.  It sank toward the north-west to a distance of close to 100 degrees and stopped.

 

Above it was a tuft of stars shining like a red-yellow flame, 50 degrees long, which went along like serpents do.  All these little stars were moving, and in the south-east they were falling like rain.  In one instant, they disappeared, and after this there was seen a whitish-blue vapour, similar to a bamboo bundle, whose top-point was the middle of the sky, and whose brilliance fatigued the eyes.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

905

 

“In the middle of May, 5 feria, a star appeared around the north side of the circuit, emitting a large ray toward the south-east, like a very long spear between Leo and Gemini across the zodiac, and was seen for nearly 23 days.”

 

Annales Floriacenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 254

 

 

 “A comet star appeared in May, and this change of rulership occurred in August.”

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 611

 

 

 

905

  May 22 - June

 

“There was a comet in Ho Pih, Kwan, and Wan Chang.  It was about 30 cubits in length.  It entered Chung Tae and Hea Tae. 

 

In the 5th moon, on the day Yih Chow (June 12), in the evening, it was in the left angle of Heen Yuen, extending towards the west of Teen She.  In the morning the luminous envelope had an exceedingly angry appearance.  It extended across the heavens. 

 

On the day Ping Yin (June 13) it was cloudy, and when, on the day Sin Wei (June 18), it ceased a little from raining, the comet was no longer visible.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

pages 52, 53

 

“Ho Pih, or Pib Ho, a, b, r, s Geminorum.

Kwan, Corona Borealis.

Wan Chang, q, f, n Ursæ Majoris.

Chung Tae, Hea Tae, stars in the feet of Ursa Major.

Heen Yuen, a and other stars in Leo and Leo Minor.

Teen She, space bounded by Serpens.”

 

 

 

905

 

“At Pentecost comets appeared.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 4

 

 

 

905

 

“A comet appeared on the thirteenth day before the calends of November.”

 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

 

 

 

906

 

“There appeared a comet for nearly half a year, portending perhaps an exceeding effusion of blood and slaughter, which occurred shortly after in a battle between the Danes and the English, wherein many nobles of both peoples fell.”

 

Flowers of History

Roger of Wendover

 

 

 

906

 

“The year of the mortality.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

906

 

“Radashona was burned by fire.”

 

Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis Minores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 94

 

 

 

907

 

“In the days of Easter comets appeared.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 4

 

 

 

908

 

“A murrain of cows.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

908-911?

 

“A great star appeared in the west in the form of a spear.”

 

The Russian Primary Chronicle

Laurentian Text

Translated and edited by

Samuel Hazzard Cross

and

Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor

The Mediaeval Academy Of America

Cambridge, Massachusetts

1953

page 65

 

 

 

909

 

“In the middle of May  5. feria  there appeared a star around the north side, emitting a great ray toward euroaustrum [southeast?] like a long spear between Leonem and Geminos across the zodiac, and it was seen for 23 days, and in the following year there was a very great famine in all of Gaul.”

 

Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 104

 

 “909(?)”

(the question mark is in this source)

(not the original manuscript)

 

 

 

910

 

Two suns ran together on the same day, i.e. on the 6th of May.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

911

 

“Star comets appear.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 77

 

 

 

911

 17th December

 

“During the night, there was seen a shooting star as large as one tenth of a bushel, approximately. …  Its light occupied more than 30 degrees.  Noise was heard like thunder.”

 

Catalogue Général des Étoiles Filiantes

et des Autres Météores observés en Chine

 

 

 

911

 

“A dark and rainy year.  A comet appeared.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

912

  May 13

 

“A comet appeared in S. D. Chang.  On the day Kea Seuh (May 15) the comet was in Ling Tae.”

 

Observations Of Comets

From 611 B.C. To A.D. 1640

page 53

 

“S. D. Chang determined by k, l, m, &c. Hydræ.

Ling Tae, c Leonis and small stars near.”

 

 

 

912

 

“Comets have been seen.”

 

Annales Colonienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 98

 

 

“Comets are visible.”

 

Annales Besuenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 2  1829

p. 249

 

 

 

“Star comets.”

 

Annales Alamannici

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 55

 

 

“Comets appeared.”

 

Annales Corbeienses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 4

 

 

Annales Quedlingburgenses

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 52

 

 

 

912

 

“A dark and rainy year.”

 

Annals of Ulster

 

 

 

 

913

 

“Winter was excessively great.”

 

Annales Augienses

Pars Secunda, Genuina

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 68

 

 

Regionis Chronicon

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 614

 

 

Annales Einsidlenses

Annales Heremi

 

From:    Monumenta Germaniae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Scriptorum Volume 3  1839

p. 141

 

 

 

913

 

“When the feast of St. Mary's purification was over, a great miracle occurred in the evening: the stars flitted among themselves, wonderfully, till midnight.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 77

 

 

 

913

 

“An immense snowfall on Ides of April (13th of April), which remained until Easter week.”

 

Annales Sangallenses Maiores

 

From:    Monumenta Germinae Historica

Georg Heinrich Pertz  Volume 1  1826

p. 77

 

 

 

913

 

“... there were also some who said that, because he was struck by the lightning of the sky, and was weak